> I wish to share the Intellectual property of India, The Theories of the Indian Cosmology and the Indian Calendar, the Panchang.
> I hope that the Human race on the Earth obtained the knowledge about the Cosmos, which surrounds the Earth , is based upon the Geocentric Concept.
> But, since for the past several centuries back, the Geo-centrists all over the Earth, had forgotten or no idea to which the Earth is centered in the Cosmos.
> Ebenezer Burgess, a British Civil Administrator to India in Mumbai, had translated the Surya Siddhantha an ancient Indian Astronomical Treatise.
> In his translation left a note. In which he wrote, ” Much yet remains to be done, before the History and use of the system of asterisms, as a part of the ancient Hindu Astronomy and Astrology shall be fully understood.
> There is in existence an abundant literature, ancient and modern, upon the subject, which will doubtless at sometimes provoke laborious investigation, and repay it with interesting results. We have already allotted to the Nakshatras more space than to some may seen advisable,our excuse must be the interest of the History of the system, as part of the ancient history of the rise and spread of Astronomical Science, the importance attaching to the researches of M.Boot, the inadequate attention hither to paid them, the recent renewal of their discussion in the Journals does savant, and finally and especially, the fact that in and with the asterisms is bound up the whole history of Hindu Astronomy, prior to its information under the overpowering influence of Western science”
> Eventually, a labourious and a detailed study of the Nakshatras with the Indian Calendar/ Panchang and the Astronomical Treatise, the Surya Siddantha, reveals that the Earth is positioned at centre of the Cosmos and all the 27 Nakshtra groups sur- rounds the Earth, in Ascending and Descending order with reference to its Equator and its pole line. An Indian Vakiya explains the order of the 7 Planets which are positioned in the space between Nakshtragroups and the Earth in the cosmos. The order of the seven Planets from the Nakshtragroups and to the Earth are as follows, 1.Saturn, 2.Jupiter, 3.Mars, 4.Sun, 5.Venues, 6.Mercury, and 7.Moon.
> To derive the detailed. Calendar systems initially they were in need to differentiate the routine and consecutive sun-raises over the Earth, they utilized the order of the Planets in the cosmos, and by using the theory of Hora, they arrived the order of week days as 1.Saturday, 2.Sunday, 3.Monday, 4.(Mars)Tuesday, 5.(Mercury)Wednesday, 6.(Jupiter)Thursday, and 7(Venus) Friday.

Then they classified the beginning the time of calculations are start from their 1 Swasa to Vinadi, Nazhigais, Day and Night, 15 days,or 2 pakshas, 12 months, 2 Ayanaas(Uthraayana and Dakshina ayana), 60 cycle of years, 1 Deva day, 1 Deva year, 4 Yugas, 14 Manvantras, and 8 Kalpas.

The 12 months and the 2 Ayanaas are classified on the basis of the movement of the Sun in it’s position along and parallel to the Nakshtra’s energy-line created in the Cosmos . Thus, the Sun’s transit parallel to the fixed stellar-groups in the Northern Cosmic hemisphere is known as Uthra-Ayanaa, and when the Sun transit in Southern Cosmic hemisphere is known as Dakshina-Ayanaa.

The 60 cyclic years of Indian Panchang/Calendar, clearly shows the detailed movements of all the 7 Planets and inclusive of the Shadow Planets with reference to fixed and the integrated form of the 27 Nakshtra groups around that Earth in the Cosmos with 8 kinds of movements from time-to-time for the 60 cyclic-years. Further, the Panchang shows accurately the time of occurrence of the Sun and Moon Eclipses. It details which shadow planet Rahu or kethu causes the particular Planet Sun or Moon and the color of the Eclipsed planet, during the time of eclipse occurring.


The Indian Panchang provides the very important and the very basic data about how the 27 Nakshtragroups are spread -over around the Earth in the Cosmos. Since the Earth is positioned at the centre of the Fixed and the integrated form of the 27 Nakshtra-groups, the extended Earth’s equator, which acts as the Cosmic-equator and the extended Pole-line of the Earth as the Cosmic-pole-line. The Panchang details the starting points of the stellar-groups from the Cosmic equator. The first-stellar groups begins at 0 deg.and ends at 13deg.20min at the first-layer in ascending order. The 2nd stellar-group starts at the ascending order and reaches the 2nd layer and ends at 26deg.40min.
The 3rd Nakshtra-group begins at ascending and reaches at 40 deg. at 3rd layer.
The 4th group in ascending order and reaches at 53deg.20min, the 5th group horizontally with no ascenging or descending and ends at 66deg.40min. The North Cosmic Pole ends at this level. The 6th group starts here and reaches 80deg. in descending order. The 7th descends and reaches 93deg.20mln.and act as the connecting the Northern hemi-Sphere to the Southern hemi-spehere of the Cosmos. The 8th group starts here in descending order and reaches at 106deg.40min.,the 9th group begins here and ends at 120deg. At 120deg.the 10 the group starts in ascending order in the Southern hemi-spehere and the 11th,12th,13th groups nakshtras reaches at 173deg.20min. The 14th group 173deg.20min._186deg.40min spreads horizontally at the Southern most edge of the Cosmos. From this point the 15th,16th,17th and the 18th groups in descending order and reaches at 240 deg. From this point the 19th,20th,21st,and the 22nd groups followed consequently and reaches in ascending order at 293deg.20min, where the 21st groups spreads parallel to the Cosmic pole. The 23rd group spreads between 293deg.20min.-306deg.40min with no ascending or descending and parallel to the Cosmic Equator. The 24th,25th,26th and the 27th stellar groups descends from 306geg.40min and reaches the 0deg, where the 1st groups starts in the Cosmos. The Surya-siddhantha, an astronomical text shows that the ascending and descending ordered 27 Nakshtra groups covered Cosmos looks like an Egg, (or) 2 bowls placed one over the other with mouths thus creating a hallow space within.

In the hallow-space created by the fixed and the integrated form of 27 Nakshtra groups that is in the Egg-shaped Cosmos, the Earth is positioned at the centre of the Cosmos due to the Nakshtra’s energy and self-rotating movement due to the excess energy’s direction reveals at the centre between the 7th and the 21st groups which are spread over parallel to the Cosmic Pole. The other 7 planets,due to their eccentric placements have their 8 kinds of movements along and parallel to Nakshtra’s positions in the Cosmos. In the Surya-siddhantha, it provides the circumferential measurements of the integrated form of the nakshtra’s and the 7 Planets in the Cosmos, in yojanas units which are to be revised to the modern linear-units .But no circumferential measurement for the Earth is provided, since it is at the centre of the Nakshtra covered Cosmos. Further, the ancient Indians with their understanding that the Planets next below the Nakshtra’s , the Planet Saturn, Jupiter and the Mars have cast their shadows over the Earth, due to the stellar energy in the Cosmos. Thus formed shadows of the planets have their movements in the anti-direction of their parent planets movements that is in anti-clock-wise direction in the Cosmos , which causes the Solar and Lunar Eclipses in the Cosmos. These are fully explained in the Indian-Panchang from time to to time for 60 cyclic Years.

From the above understandings of the Ancient Indians, they derived their cosmological-theories over the Oneness Universe created with the fixed and the integrated form of the 27 Nakshtra groups that are surrounds the Earth in the Cosmos. They clubbed the 27 Nakshtra groups into 12 Constellations. Taking the movement of the Sun with reference to the Nakshtra constellations they named their 12 months. When the Sun transits in its position, parallel to the constellation groups in the Northern Cosmic hemisphere it is designated as Uthra-Ayana and when it transits in Cosmic Southern hemisphere is known as Dakshina-Ayana.

It is learnt from the detailed study of the Indian-Panchang and the Surya-siddhantha that the Ancient Indians Oneness Universe theories are derived on the acceptable Scientific facts. I hope that the Ancient Indians Nakshtra based Oneness Cosmic Theories will not get immediate acceptance by going through a glance and will be appreciated only after a deep study and discussions beyond any religious faiths. I am very happy to announce that I am to be an instrument to fulfill the desire of Sri.Ebenezer Burgess. To know more about the Indian Calendar and the Indian Cosmograph kindly log on


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