Discover India through her Cosmological Inventions


DISCOVER INDIA THROUGH HER GEO-CENTRIC

                COSMOLOGICAL INVENTIONS                                                                                                                                                           

                                                                                                                     MANNAISWAMI 

 

                                              INDEX       

 

   S.No                            Contents Page No

1

The Ancient Indian Cosmography 2

2

The cosmological discoveries and inventions inIndia 3

3

The fixed and integrated form of 27 nakshtras in the cosmos at different levels w.r.to cosmic equator 4

4

Location of the nakshtra groups in the cosmos 5

5

Figurative assessment of the stellar group 6-8

6

Figurative assessment of 12 constellations 9-10

7

The Indian Calendar system 11

8

Inventions of the order of the week days 12

9

Identification of the months 13

10

Order and the movements of the planets w.r.to the fixed nakshtra groups 14

11

Circumferential Lengths of the cosmos and etc. 15

12

Speed of the planets  in the cosmos 16

13

Formation of the crescent and phases of the moon 19

14

Formation of the solar and Lunar eclipses as per Indian cosmography 20-21

15

Discoveries and inventions of the Helios system 22

16

Conclusion 25

17

Bibliography 27

 

 

 

 

 

 

 DISCOVER INDIA THROUGH HER GEO-CENTRIC

                COSMOLOGICAL INVENTIONS                                                                                                                                                           

                                                                                                                     MANNAISWAMI 

Introduction

    

                         INDIA, the sub-continent on the Earth is identified by the other part of the World with her Mount Everest in the Himalayas with the Perennial, spiritual river Ganga and with her Spiritualism. She has the richest Heritage and well known for her Yogic and spiritualistic way of life.  Her children bestowed with WISDOM OF KNOWLEDGE, who have contributed many inventions and discoveries in all lifestyles!  Among them, the cosmological inventions and discoveries made by them are the standing examples for their excellence of knowledge, which played a key- role to lead a peaceful life with humanity!

 

                         In the modern times, the spiritualistic approach of life considered, as an unscientific who has only unfolded believes of bad faiths. Such believes, which cannot be reasoned easily are considered as the spiritual or bad-faiths. If we can through of such bad faiths, we can find out the proper reasoning based upon the Ancient Indians theories of the Cosmological Inventions and Discoveries.

Ancient Indians Cosmography:

 

The Ancient Indians deciphered the difference between the MORTAL AND IMMORTAL.  They specified the mortal is the constituent of Worldly thing, which formed from time- to- time due to the chemical and physical changes, and the immortal is the part and part of the cosmic energy, which is generated by the 27 Nakshatra Groups and the planets in the Cosmos.

THE SOUL:

They designated the Soul as the and part of the cosmic energy which has also rotation on the earth with reference to the cosmic energy prevailing in the cosmos from time-to-time according to the position of the planets with reference to the earth in the Cosmos.  Therefore, the Ancient Indians defined the soul as immortal. The Soul which has a temporary Shelter when it has a connection with the mortal body made out of the Worldly things of those which are having the impact of the cosmic-energy from-time-to-time for their growth and destruction.  With their Geo-centric Oneness Universe made out of the fixed and the integrated form of the 27 Stellar, They deciphered that the immortal Soul have numerous contacts from time-to-time with the mortal bodies of the worldly things in a cyclic pattern due to the influence of the Cosmic Energy from-to-time and had claimed the theory of Re-birth! More over they, found out the relation between the worldly things with the cosmic energy with reference to their Physical and Chemical qualities in the Sphere of Earth.

                       The Cosmic- energy, which keeps a key-role on all the matters on the earth which attracts and distracts and caused for their similarities and differences among them. On visualizing the above, they found-out that the Souls are immortal in nature as they are the part and part of the Cosmic energy,  whereas the all  the other perishable maters over the earth are formed  with the combinations of the Five Factors of energies which are Air, Water, Heat, Earth and the Cosmos.

 

 

 

Cosmological Discoveries and Inventions in India:                                                    

 

                          The Ancient Indians were the pilots over the Earth to unfold the Secrets of the Cosmos, which made out of the Fixed and the integrated form of the 27 Nakshatra groups through their perishable bodies as a Model of the Cosmos!  They undertook a detailed study about the cosmic energy and how it influence over the perishable body and its Soul.  The Rishies and the Siddhars of India to extend their life-time of their  perishable bodies through  the practice of Yoga  and by repeating the particular sounds which activates the Cosmic energy around them than a normal man. Some of them tried through the Herbals and thereby developed the Ayurvedic and Siddha System of Medicine inIndia…

They found that the systematic pronunciation of sound which can vibrate the Cosmic energy and the developed the system of Mantras. Further, they had found that the different types of sounds, which are having different types of frequencies, which anything can be identified easily on the Earth with reference to the Cosmic Energy over the Earth. They understood about the direct and the indirect influences of the cosmic matters over the each matter on the Earth. Further, they found that the Lights, which are emitting from the stellar or the Nakshatras and from the planets have also their influence over the Matters of the Earth which are seen in different colors.

They had closely watched the environmental behaviors around them and noted a systematic and cyclic rotation over a span of time is mainly due to the spinning movement of the Earth and the movements of the Planets with reference to the Fixed and the integrated form of the 27 Stellar or Nakshatras in the Cosmos. Finally, they had located the exact locations of the 27 different Nakshatras groups with reference to the Earths’ Equator and its pole-line compared to the structure of the Human body. Which has a integrated form from Foot to Head Using the Human structure as the model of the Cosmos. They deciphered that the 27 different types of Nakshtra groups are spread over in the cosmos with reference to the Earths’ Equator in Ascending (Arohana), and in Descending

(Avarohana) order and complete their integrated form at the Starting point at” 0” position .They found that the Integrated form of the 27 Nakshatra groups which are positioned at the outer –most layer of the Cosmos the energy generated by them are filled within the Cosmic-Sphere surrounded by them and beyond their position to the outer side of the Cosmos .

                    The Cosmic-Sphere, which found, filled with the cosmic energy. The nakshatras energies causes for the fixed position of the Earth at the center of the cosmos. The excess residual energy derived at the center of the cosmos by the Nakshatra groups by the sides of the earth causes the Earth to have a constant spinning movement at the center of the cosmos. The other planets have their movements along and parallel  to the Fixed and the integrated form of the Nakshatras as they are positioned in eccentric positions in the Cosmic Sphere covered by the Nakshatras groups.

 

 

 

 

The Fixed positions and the integrated form of the 27 Nakshatra Groups in the Cosmos:

 

                        The Ancient Indians, initially derived their exact living locations on the sphere of the Earth by sub-dividing  with ( longitudes and latitudes ) Atchamsa rega and Deergamsa rega using the Bhumadhiya rega and the Duruva rega (Equator and the Pole-line) as the base lines to locate their exact location over the sphere of the Earth. To locate the exact positions of the Planets and the Positions of the 27 nakshatras groups in the Cosmos they extended the Latitudes. Longitudes, the Equator and the Pole-line of the Earth and named it as Cosmic Equator and the Cosmic Pole.

They had bi-sect the Cosmos into Northern and Southern Hem-sphere based upon the Cosmic Equator.To locate the Ascending and Descending order of the each natshatra group along the Pole-line based upon the Cosmic Equator. To fix the Starting and the ending positions of the each Nakshatra groups at different levels from the Cosmic- equator, along the pole line in ascending and descending order, they referred them to the structure of the normal human-body, which has four main levels of foot, thigh, stomach, neck and head.

They invented that the First Group of Nakshatra which has the starting point at the foot level which is found to be parallel to the Cosmic equator at 0 deg. and  spread over in the Cosmic Northern sector and ends at 13 ˚  20 “ in the ascending order and endsat the second layer where the thigh portion begins. Following this, the next second group of Nakshatra starts at 13 ˚

.20 ” and finishes at the 3rd layer at 26˚ 40 ” at the Stomach level in ascending order.. On continuing the 3rd ,  the 4th Nakshatra group starts at  26 ˚ 40 ” and ends at the 4th  layer, at  the neck at 40 ˚  and ends at the head at 53 ˚ 20 ” . The 5th Nakshatra group which spread at the Northern Cosmic sphere which has no Ascending or Descending order but in a part of circular arch portion between 53 ˚ 20”

and 69 ˚ 40” parallel to the Cosmic Equator .

From the outer most Northern Hemi-sphere where the 5th Stellar group spread over in row Cosmos  keeping a  same level.from53 ˚ 20 ”  to 66 ˚ 40 ”  which portion  is compared to the Head Portion, continuing this,  the 6th group of Nakshtra spreading over in the cosmos between Head and Neck portion in descending order and ends at the 80 ˚ . Similarly, the 7th group which is also found to be in the descending order starts at 80 ˚  and reaches the 93 ˚  20 ”  at the Southern Cosmic Sphere which connects the Northern and southern hemi-spheres of the Cosmos.. Similarly, the 8th and the 9th which are in continuation with the 6th are spread over in the Cosmic Southern sector in the descending Order.. Following the ninth group the 10th 11th, 12th and the 13th groups of stars spread over in the Southern Cosmic sector in the same descending order. The 14th, which is spread over at the Southern tip of the cosmic sphere as the 5th Group in the Northern Sector between173 ˚ 20 ”  and 186 ˚ 40 ” .

In continuation of the 14th group which spread at the Southern tip portion the 15th., 16th., 17th., 18th., 19th., 20th., 21st., 22nd., spread over in the Northwest Cosmic sphere in Ascending order from186 ˚ 40 ”  to 293 ˚ 20 ”  consecutively.. It seems that the 21st group is the connecting group between the Southern and Northern hemispheres of the cosmos as that of the seventh group of Nakshatra.

The 23rd, which is found spread-over in the Northwest portion of the cosmic sphere, is also in the same level and has no Ascending or descending order like the 5th group of Nakwhatra which spread over in the North-east region of the Cosmic sphere. Following the 23rd group the 24th., 25th., 26th., and the 27th groups linking with each other and spread-over in descending order between306 ˚ 40 ”   and 360 ˚  and merges with the starting point of the 1st., group at 0 ˚  at the foot or parallel to the Cosmic equator level.

The Surya Siddhantha, an astronomical Text describes the shape of the Cosmos. The Cosmos is seen in-between the two bowls, which are inversely, positioned each one at the Northern and southern tips .All the 27 Nakshatra groups are spread between the circles placed in the space between the two inverted bowels of the Cosmos. The Indian Almanac describes the ascending and descending positions of the 27 Nakshatra groups comparing to the Human structure.  The Krishna Yajur veda Sloga also describes the Cosmos. The Cosmos, which is covering by the 27 Nakshatra

groups and within the hallow space .the positions of the planets between the nakshatras and the Earth are Saturn, Jupiter, Mars, Sun, Venus, Mercury, and the Moon respectively,  They compared it to the shape of an Egg or to a Pine-apple.  All the above details made available only in the form of descriptions and in the form of Slogas, No graphical or pictorial views about the Cosmic- sphere as detailed in the Astronomical texts could found.   The Ancient Indians found that the different Nakshatra groups have their starting points in the same layer, which compared to the Human structure. The below table shows the details:

Sl.no .   Name of the Nakshtra group                                  Location in the Cosmic-Sphere  from 1 to 27(Stars groups referred with reference to Indian  almanac)   
1.. 1st   Aswin., 9th Ayily,10thMagha,18th ketta., 19thMoola and27th  revathi  All the six groups of Stellar start at the parallel and at the same level to the Cosmic Equator, in their locations in the North, North-east, South-west and North portion in ascending and descending order
2 2nd Bharani, 8th   Poosam,11th,pooram,  17thAnusha,20th poorada  & 26th Uthirada All these 6 groups begin at the first-layer (level) next to the Cosmic equator both in the North and in the Southern –hemi-sphere at Northeast, Southeast, and in South-west and North-west portions in ascending and descending order.
 3 3rd kritiga,7thpunarvasu,12th Uthiram, 16thvisaka,21st Uthirada, 25th poorattadhi These stellar groups start from the 2nd level layer from the equator both north and southern hemi-spheres at North-east, East, South-east, South-west, West, and North-west portions of the Cosmic sphere in ascending and descending order.
  4 4th Rohini,6ththiruvathirai,13th Hastha,15thSwathi,22nd Thiruvona, 24th Sadayam These groups of Nakshatras spread-over in the cosmos from the 3rd level layer from the equator in the both hemi-spheres in the Sorth-east, Southeast, South-west, North-West portions in the same manner of the other groups of stellar.
   5 5th Mirugasheer, 19thchitra23rd Avitta The 19th group stellar is positioned at tip of the Southern-hemisphere, the other two groups are positioned  one each at North-east and North-west portions of the Cosmic-Sphere.

                          

          To identify the 27 various Nakshatra groups in the Cosmic-Sphere the Ancient Indians derived the Figurative system.  In which all the Nakshatra groups are compared to the Worldly Living and Non-living matters .To asses the movement of the Sun which has its movement along and parallel to the Fixed and the integrated form of the nakshatras they combined more than two groups and formed 12 types of Constellations. The following tables serve the details at a glance.

 

Sl,no  Name of the Nakshatra Group and their angular placement found in the Cosmos. Figurative assessment to identify the each stellar group in the Cosmos
   1. Aswin 0˚ – 13˚.20” Spread over 0 to 13 ˚  20 ”  tangential arch space in the ascending order and looks like a Horse -face The moon transits through in West-Eastern direction.
   2,      Bharani 13˚ 20” -26˚ 40” As the same, this group spreads between 13 ˚ 20 ” to 26 ˚ 40 ” and looks like an Oven.
   3. Kruthiga 26˚ 40”  – 40˚ Occupies the space between 26 ˚ 40 ” to  40 ˚   and looks likes a serious of lamps kept one over the other. The Moon travels in the South-North direction.
4 Rohini 40˚-53˚20” This group looks like a crown. The Moon  moves through the North portion of the group
 5.  Mirugasheer 53˚20”-66˚40” This group seems like the three holes in the coconut shell and spread over horizontally in the same level.
 6. Arudhara 66˚40”-80˚ This group formed out of a single star, which spread over in descending order.
 7. Punarvasu 80˚-93˚20” This group formed mainly out of 7 stars over a base of 76 stars, which looks like the bottom of the Ship in the descending order. This group connects the northern and the Southern Hemi-spheres of the Cosmos.
8. Poosam 93˚20”-106˚40” This group formed out of 4 stars and  looks like a pumpkin flower inDescending order The Moon travels in the south portion of the group                                                                                                  
9 Ayilya 106˚40” -120˚ This group seems to be in a rectangular. The Moon travels south portion of this.
10 Maha 120˚ – 133˚20” This is in the form of a plough. The Moon travels right across this group in ascending order from North-south.
11 Poora 133˚20” -146˚40” This group proceeds in the same direction of the above group towards south direction and looks like the four legs of a cot.
12 Uthira 146˚40” -160˚ This group looks likes the same as the above group and the Moon transits towards south.
13 Hastha 160˚ – 173˚20˚ This group looks like the 5 fingers in the hand (or) in the form of a ear-ring.
14 Chitra 173˚20” -186˚40” This group is at the South most bottoms of the cosmos in the same level parallel to the Cosmic equator
15 Swathi 186˚40” -200˚ This is a illuminant flame of a lamp and is the tail-end of the Saptharishi Stars in descending order towards the Cosmic equator.
16 Visaka 200˚ -213˚20” This group formed out of 7 stars and looks like a damaged constructed wall portion.
17 Anusha 213˚20” -226˚40” This group formed by 9 stars and looks like the Lotus flower in the descending order. The moon moves right across this.
18 Ketta 226˚40 -240˚ Shaped like a spear and the Moon travel south of this group in descending order/
19 Moola 240˚ -253˚ 20” This looks like a long mouth organ and in ascending order.
20 Poorada 253˚20´-266˚40” This is a continuing  group of the above in ascending order.   
21 Uthirada 266˚40” -280˚ Combination of the group this group looks like the legs of a cot. The moon travels north of the above group and right in the middle of this group.
22 Sravana 280˚ -293˚20” This is in the form of a yardstick in ascending order. The moon moves south of this.
23 Avitta 293˚20” -306˚40” This group looks like a wheel and the moon travels south of this parallel to the cosmic equator.
24 Sadaya 306˚40” -320˚ This group contains 100 stars and looks like a bunch of flowers in descending order towards the cosmic equator. The moon travels south portion of this.
25 Poorattadhi 320˚ -333˚20” This is continuation of the above group in descending order.
26 Uthirattadhi 333˚20” -346˚40” The combination of this group with the above group looks lik the 4 legs of a cot. The moon travels south among these groups.
27 Revathi 346˚40” -360˚ ( 0˚) This group looks like a fish, which is descending order, and joins where the 1st group starts parallel to the cosmic equator. The moon travels south of this.

       

 

 

 

 

           Below Table shows the various constellation formed out of 27 stars.

S.No          Name of the constellation The figurative assessment to identify the each constellation in the Cosmos
1 Mesha 0˚ -30˚ (Aries) This constellation is arrived by the combination of the 1st,2nd, and a part of 3rd  Nakshatra groups  and looks like a Goat in the 0˚ – 30˚ ascending angular space from the Cosmic equator.
2 Rishaba 30˚ – 60˚ (Taurus) In continuation of the above, the integrated part of remaining the 3rd, 4th, and middle portion of the 5th Nakshtra groups compared to the shape of a Bull between 30˚-60˚ angular spaces in ascending space above the cosmic equator.
3 Mithuna 60˚ – 90˚ (Gemini) This Constellation starts from the mid portion of the 5th group and spread over in ascending order combined with the 6th and up to the 3/4th  portion of the 7th group. The 7th group, which starts in the Northen hemi-sphere and passes through the cosmic-equator, ends in the Southern hemi-sphere, where the Sun transits through this group beyond 90˚ and termed as the starting of the Dakshina ayana Of the Sun in the Cosmos. It looks like the two women standing nearby.
4 Kadaga 90˚ – 120˚ (Cancer) This constellation comprises of the 10th, 11th and 1/4th part of the 12th Nakshatra group from 90˚ – 120˚ in ascending order from the cosmic equator to the southern direction in the cosmos. This seems like a Crab.
5 Simmah 120˚ – 150˚ (Leo) This constellation identified like the face of a lion. The 10th, 11th, and 1/4th of the 12th group of stars shape this constellation, which can see in the southern hemi-sphere of the Cosmos.
6 Kanni 150˚ – 180˚ (Virgo) From the 1/4th of the 12th , 13th and up to the mid portion of the 14th  star groups, the Virgo constellation is formed in the south of the cosmic sphere. It looks like a teen-age girl.
7 Thula 180˚ – 210˚ (Libra) This constellation starting from the mid-portion of the 14th star group, which is at the dead end of the Southern cosmic sphere, which  proceeds in descending order along the 15th and up to the 3/4th portion of the 16th group. It looks like a balance, which suspended with two-pans on either side of a rod with an indicator at the center of the rod. 
8 Virchiga 210˚ – 240˚ (Scorpio) The Scorpio constellation stars from the 3/4th of the 16th star groups and continuing through the 17th and ends with the 18th Star groups. It is in the form of a Scorpion, in the southwest portion of the Cosmic southern-hemi sphere. 
10 Magara 270˚-300˚ (Capricon) This constellation starts from the cosmic equator region and extends through the 22nd and ends in the mid-portion of the 23rd group in ascending order in northwest hemi sphere of the Cosmos, It looks like a water-born living sea horse. 
11 Kumba 300˚ – 330˚ (Aquirius) Aquiris Constellation starts from the dead-end of the northern hemisphere spreads in the descending order towards the cosmic-equator along the 24th and up to the 3/4th portion of the 25th group in the northwest portion of the Cosmic-sphere, It looks like a ornate metallic Pot contained with purified water inside of the pot and covered with a coconut. 
12 Meena 330˚ – 360˚ (Pisces) Continuing the 25th group it reaches the Cosmic equator level through the 26th and the 27th group of stars it merges with the 1st group of stars which starts at 0˚ parallel to the Cosmic equator in descending order .It looks like a pair of fishes facing their tail ends with each other.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Indian Calendar System:

 

The Ancient Indians found that the environmental changes around them on the Earth have the direct and the indirect influences of the cosmic bodies such as the sun, the moon and other planets and the Nalshatras groups around the Earth.  After a keen observation over the systematic changes in the climate, and the positions of the Stars, Sun, Moon and other planets in the Cosmos around the Earth, they tried initially, to locate their position on the earth. From this, it can be understand beyond any doubt from the Almanac designed by the Ancient Indians  and the Astronomical text The Surya Siddhantha , and other related texts that the Ancient Indians were the pilots not only in discovering the Astronomical facts but also to discover that the Earth is  a spinning sphere!

To locate their positions on the Sphere of the Earth, they bi-sect the sphere by drew a line across the sphere and termed it as Bhu-madhiya rega , the axis of the earth sphere as Bhu-achu or other known as Cosmic-equator and cosmic pole-line.   To have more accuracy, further they sub-divided the sphere area by introducing the Atcha and Deerga rega, later, which known as Longitudes and latitudes.  They were well aware of that the raising as well as the setting of the Sun at varies places gradually differ due to their longitudinal positions is due to the spinning movement of the Earth in the Cosmos. They used to ascertain the actual moment of the raising and the setting of the sun

Through the shadows formed on the earth by the rays of the Sun and found that they used many more methods to arrive the same.

While they observed the space, they noted the gradual development and the gradual diminishing of the Moon in the space at some frequent intervals of time. They noticed that particular stars groups are visible in the space for a long-duration.  After had a keen observation, they separated the planets Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn from the Stars groups while they too seem like the stars in the Space.  To arrive the exact locations of the Star-Groups, Planets position from their observation points, they evolved a detailed time calculation methods,  They used a normal man’s  time-duration between  an inhaling-ex-haling of his breath and the time  duration between his normal opening and shutting  down of his eye-lids , as the basic units for the time-calculations.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

      1 swasa (breathing time)           =     1 Prana (Normal time between inhaling and exhaling)

      6 prana              =       1 palams

60 palams          =      1 nashigai

60 nazhigaies    =     1 Day or      (0ne Arohana or oneAvarohana Nakshatra                    

Through which the Planet moon transits)

15 Days              =      1 paksha    (Which denotes the movement of the Moon along

                                                             And parallel to the fixed star-groups of the                                                                                             

                                                             Fixed star- groups in the Cosmos either in

                                                             Developing or in diminishing in her shape)                                                                           

      2 Pakshas          =        1 month    (which denotes the transit of the Sun along the

                                                             Parallel to a constellation)

      12 months          =    1Year (or)     (which denotes the time taken by the Sun to

1 Deva day   Complete one round along and parallel to the

                                                             Star-groups fixed in the Cosmos with reference to

      360 Deva days       =     1 Deva Year.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      

         1 chatur yuga     =    1 Manvanthara (Chatur Yuga consists of four Yugas.1.Kali.2.Duvapara..

                                                                       3. Thretha and 4.Krutha Yuga

     14 Manvantharas  =    1 Kalpa (There are 7 kalpas in practice and the present

Running Kalpa known as Sriswedavaraga

Kalpa which is found to be first one among the 

                                                         Other 6 Kalpas.)

 

Invention of the order of the days in a week:

 

         The Ancient Indians defined the period of 60 Nazhigaies between a Sun raise and the Sun set.

As they found numerous Sun raises and the Sunsets are taking place over the earth, to identify the same they used the order of the planets between the 27 Nakshatra groups and the Earth in the Geo-centric principles. The order of the planets in the Geo-centric theories between the Fixed stellar groups and the earth which are 1.Saturn, 2.Jupiter, 3,Mars, 4.Sun, 5,Venus, 6.Mercury,and .Moon from the stellar respectively. Considering the starting of a new yuga, the 1st positioned planet merges with the initial sun raise of that yuga for a period of 2 1/2 Nazhigaies (or) an hour. Continuing the Saturn, the other planets merge with the Sun raise in a cyclic manner. Thus 3 complete cycles of the order of the planets merges with the Sun raise, when 21 hours lapsed the 4th turn starts with the 1st planet Saturn and the 24th hour ends with the planet Mars. Following this the 25th hour which merges with the new sun-raise which co-inside with the next order of the planet Sun.  Continuing this cyclic pattern with reference to the order of the planets in the cosmos the third sun raise starts with the planet Mars, the 4th sun raise with the Mercury, the fifth sun raise merges with Jupiter, the 6th Sun raise starts with the Venus.

The adoption of Planets between the sun raises, and the arrival of the weekdays the system known as the “Hora.” and  Prof.H.H.Wilson  expressed that the origin of the arrangement not ascertained very precisely, as it was unknown to the Greeks, and not adopted by the Roman until a late period. It commonly ascribed to the Egyptians, but no sufficient authority, and the Hindus inIndiato have at least as good as to the invention of any other people. The Hora system, derived by the Ancient Indians is still in force and followed by the Indians in their daily occupations.

 

Identification of Months:

The Ancient Indians identified the twelve cyclic months with reference to the transit position of the Sun and Moon along and parallel to the Nakshatras groups in their positions. Accordingly, they named after the Sun while it transits through twelve constellation namely 1.Mesha (Aeries).2.Rishaba (Taurus), 3.Mithuna (Gemini).4.Kadaga (Cancer), 5.Simah (Leo), 6, Kanya (Virgo), 7.Tula (Libra).8.Virchiga (Scorpio), 9.Dahus (Sagittarius), 10.Magara (Capricorn), 11.Kumba.(Acquires), 12.Meena (Pisces). In addition to that they identified months with reference yo the transit position of the Moon through a particular Nakshatra (stellar) group when the Full Moon occurs and identified with that particular Nakshatra group. 1. Chaitram.(14th Group). 2. Vaisakam  (16th group), 3.Jeyshtam (18th group), 4. Ashadam  (20th group), 5.Sravanam  (22nd group, 6.Pathrapadam (25th group), 7.Aajveejam (1st group), 8.kruthigam (3rd group), 9Arudhara (6th group), 10,Pushiyam (8th group). 11. Magam (10th group), 12.Palguanm (12th group),                                                                                                                                  

 

Order and movements of the Planets:                                                                           

 

               The Ancient Indians found that the three energies which are formed out of Air, Water, and Heat, which are the common factors over the Earth. Further, they compared the energies to the Stars, the Planets and to the earth and classified as the cosmic energy and the Energy of earth. They invented that the five energies are main factors in deciding the environment over the Earth. Accordingly, constant and keen observations with the five factor of energies, they evolved 60 different years and identified them by individual names. They derived necessary formulae to ascertain the movement of the each planet with reference to the fixed and the integrated form of the 27 nakshatras in the cosmos for every individual year.  From the above circumstance, it is easy to understand that at the time of formatting the Calendar system there was no religion.  However, in later, the followers of the geo-centric principles who had practiced made them as a religion. But in the recent centuries, The geo-centric cosmic theories which are treated as a part of the religion had been purposefully neglected       being it is assumed as based upon religious faith.

From the above Ancient Indians Timetable, this can easily ascertained that the Studies about Cosmology inIndiatook place even before 6 kalpas of period! From this, it can be realized initially the Ancient Indians had discovered the fixed and the integrated form of the 27 Nakshatras, the 7 kinds of Planets, the shape of the earth as a Sphere,. Further they, based upon their discoveries made in the Cosmic Studies, they invented that the Cosmic – sphere that made out of the fixed and the integrated form of the 27 Nakshatra groups, which looks like the shape of an Egg or of a Pineapple.

In-side of the hallow egg-sphere, they invented the positions of the Planets the space between the Nakshatra groups and to the Earth in descending order Saturn, Jupiter, Mars, Sun, Venus, Mercury, and the Moon. Since for the last few centuries, it i found that the followers of the geo-centric cosmic principles inIndiahad forgotten the original, the fixed, and the integrated form of the 27 nakshatra and the movements of the planets along and parallel to the fixed format of the nakshatras groups, by which the cosmos is made! They simply believed only in the positions and order of the planets and their time-taken to complete one round in the cosmos around the Earth in the cosmos.  They were unable to reconcile the fixed and the integrated form of the 27 nakshatras with reference to the earth, which are available in the Surya siddhantha and in the Almanac in a hidden manner!

The Ancient Indians, Chinese, Babylonians, Arabs, and other Western thinkers had formulated their findings and thus various treatises are available on this. However, the experts in the field like Cole-brook and Ebenezer Burgess are of the views that the Indians were the pioneers and for most on expounding on the subject.  Burgess felt that the positions of the constellations, which could not precisely understood in the Hindu Astronomy by the then Indians and further studies of the Hindu astronomical concepts, could reveal more information and lead to have more enlighten. Further Burgess felt that the Hindu system of astronomy had relegated the positioning of the Stellar constellation to a lesser important place, the fact remains in the Hindu life style.

The Ancient Indians after discovering the basic factors such as the fixed and the integrated format of the 27 Nakshata groups around the Earth, the exact locations of the Planets between the Nakshatras and the Earth they concentrated on the movements of the planets with reference to the Fixed stellar in the Cosmos.  They had precisely ascertained that the cosmic energy is the basic cause for the movements of the planets with reference to the Fixed and the integrated form of the stellar groups in the cosmos and the Earth to have a stationery position at the center of the Cosmos.

The spinning movement to the earth is due to the excess energy realized at the center of the cosmos. Out of the two stellar groups, which do the sides of the Earth in the Cosmos position, where the Earth positioned in the center of the Cosmos has an undisturbed regular spinning movement.  Further, they understood the cause for the movement of the Planets along and parallel to the fixed and the intenerated format of the stellar groups is the eccentric placement in the cosmic sphere,

They critically investigated and found that positive as well as negative kind of forces from the stellar groups suffers the movement s of the planets, which are in eight kinds. The eight kinds of motions of the planets along and parallel to the fixed stellar groups in the Cosmos are 1.Vakra (Retrograde) 2.Anu-vakra (somewhat retrograde) 3.Kutila (Traverse), 4.Mandha (slow), 5.Mandhatara (Very Slow), 6.Sama (Even), 7.Cigara (Fast), and 8.Cigaratara (Very Fast).

 

They found that the Earth, which is at the center of the Cosmic-shell, has no movement along and parallel to the fixed position of the stellar groups like the other planets. The earth has the self-rotation movement, which causes the Gravitation force around the Earth in the Cosmic-shell. The other planets, completes one round starting from the parallel level to the cosmic equator and passes through in ascending  as well as in descending order all over the inner shell of the cosmos, covering the entire northern and southern hemi-sphere and finished one round from where they started..

They fully understood when the objects have their movements in ascending and in descending order with reference to the Cosmic equator then the pathway so created by the stellar in the cosmos must be in an irregular position and compared the same to the Lotus Petal-line format…

The followers of the geo-centrism, had forgotten this critical pathway of the planets in the cosmos, No planet in the cosmos keeps a constant distance from the Earth, as they are in continuously move along and parallel to the Fixed star groups behind them. So they provided the total circumferential distances for each planet in their positions and the total circumferential distance of the Fixed and the integrated form of the 27 stellar groups.  In addition to that, they provided the total circumferential stellar energy extended beyond the stellar groups, through which it understood that the stellar energy could also spread all over within the cosmic-shell.

 

 The following table provides the circumferential lengths.

 Sl.no                

Details

 

Circumferential length

(in Yojanas)

1

The Universe

18,112,080,864,000,000

2

The fixed and the integrated  form of stellar groups

259,890,000

3

Saturn

127,688,285

4

Jupiter

51,375,764

5

Mars

8,146,909

6

Sun

4,351,000

7

Venus

2,664,637

8

Mercury

1,043,209

9

Moon

324,000

.

Note:  In the above table, the Yojana mentioned referred to the linear Astronomical Unit for which No exact equaling modern measuring unit derived. At present One Yojanea is equated to 5 Miles or 8.045Kilometer.(approximation).

The Ancient Indians, after arriving the total circumferential lengths of each planet and the fixed and the integrated form of the stellar groups and the energy line extended beyond out side of the stellar groups in the Cosmos. They discovered the average time taken by the each planet to complete on round along and parallel to the fixed and the integrated format of the Nakshatra groups within the Cosmic shell, considering all the eight kinds of motions.  Later, the then Investigators and Astronomers considered the movements of the planets along and parallel to the fixed stellar format as the Sidereal periods of the planets in the cosmos. 

 

   The following table provides the time-taken by the each planet to complete one round in the inner shell of the cosmos, along and parallel to the fixed stellar groups.

 

Sl.No                                                                                                                            

Name of the  Planet

Time-taken to complete one-round around the Cosmos along and parallel to the Fixed and the integrated form of the Nakshatras                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      
 1

Saturn

30 years or 10956 days

2

Jupiter

12 years or 4383 days.

3

Mars

18 Months or 687 days

4

Sun

12 Months or 365 days

5

Venus

225 days

6

Mercury

88 days

7

Moon

27days.

It is noticed that when equating the data’s shown in the above tables with the relation between the time and the distance that the Planets are moving in a equal speed of motion along and parallel to the fixed and the integrated form of the Nakshatra groups.

The following table provides the speed of the individual planet in the cosmos

.

Sl.no Name of the  Planets

Circumferential Length

Time taken to complete one

Round (in Days)

Speed of the Planet

(in Yojana/Hour )

 1 Saturn

127,688,285

10956

485.6083

 2 Jupiter

51,375,754

4383

486.3958

 3. Mars

8,146,909

687

494.1125

 4. Sun

4,351,000

365

496.3500

 5. Venus

2,664,637

225

493,4458

 6.  Mercury

1,043,209

88

493.9416

 7.  Moon

324,000

27

493.9600

From the Speed of the Planets, it comes to understand that all the planets in the Cosmos are in more or less in the equal speed of motion. With reference to the Indians Almanac, it is found that the planets the Sun and the Moon only have not suffered by the retrograde motion among all others are facing the retrograde movements due to the Negative magnitude forces of the Nakshatras groups. This may be the cause to the Ancient Indians to give more importance to the Sun and Moon.

           According to the Ancient Indians the Fixed and the integrated form of the Nakshtra        Groups, which forms the Cosmic Shell, found not to be either in a regular Circular or in a regular elliptical shape but in a irregular format due to the ascending and descending orders of the Nakshatras with reference to the Cosmic equator. This causes the movements of the planets in their position in the inner portion of the cosmic shell parallel to the Nakshatra groups in an irregular Shape, which looks like the outer circumference of the peals of a Lotus flower.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

THE BELOW PICTURE SHOWS THE PLAN OF THE FIXED AND THE INTEGRATED

FORM OF THE 27 STARS IN THE COSMOS WITH REFERENCE TO THE EARTH’S EQUATOR AND ITS POLE LINE WHICH LOOKS LIKE A LOTUS PETAL LINE PATHWAY.

THE BELOW PICTURE SHOWS THE PLANETARY POSITIONS IN THE STELLAR COVERED

                        COSMOS AS ON 20.08.1953 AT THANJAVUR,TAMILNADU.

The formation of Crescent and Phases of the Moon:

                The Ancient Indians invented that all the Planets within the inner shell of the Cosmos, have their movements in their position along and parallel to the Positions of the Nakshatra groups, in the inner-space of the cosmic shell and the pathway looks like the circumferential line connecting all edges of a lotus petals and  termed as  Lotus petal-line pathway.

 

                 They found that the Moon takes an average duration of 27 days to complete one round through the lotus petal-line pathway and completes all the 360˚. During the same period, the Sun transits in the petal-line pat way in its position only up to 30˚. The commencement of the new moon takes place at any time when the moon transits between 0˚ to 30˚ tangential curvature space inside of the cosmos in its position and merge with the level and position of Sun in the same 0˚ to 30˚ tangential curvature space in its position.  The angular deviation, the depart movement in the descending and ascending order of the moon with reference to the positions of the Sun, causes the Formation and the  development of the Crescent Moon. When the moon reaches the opposite position to the Sun, the Full moon shines in the Cosmos. Continuing her movement in the cosmos towards the transit position of the Sun , which once again makes the moon merge with parallel level of the sun in her position in the next 30˚ to 60˚ Cosmic sphere and a new moon  commences once again!  The sufficient details provided in the Almanac about the day-to-day movements of all the planets with reference to the Fixed Nakshstras in the Cosmos.

The following Graph in the following page shows the details of the developing and diminishing shape of the Moon.

 

             

Formations of the Lunar and Solar Eclipse:

 

             The inventions and the critical studies about the formations of the lunar and the solar eclipses made by the Ancient Indians are the examples for their outstanding excellence of intelligence over the science of Physics!  They knew when a bright object seen through a color screen then the object would also see as the color of the Screen.  They undertook a closer observation and noted the color variation over the lunar and solar eclipses and both of them were seen light red and black in color. This made them that shade as screen, which falls over the Earth and obscure the bright objects the Sun and Moon while they are passing through it in the cosmos.

Then they invented the cause of the formation of the screen like shade and the movement of the same in the Cosmos.  It is normal to see that the shade of an object have its direction of movement along the movement and direction of the object.  They invented that the shade of an object, which has its shade casts through the penetrated rays of light behind it, which have its movement of direction, is in opposite direction of the object.   They realized that the shades of the planets Saturn, Jupiter and Mars are formed due to the penetrated rays of Nakshatra groups behind them and identified them by their colors that are in Black, Red and Yellow respectively in the Cosmos.

From this, it is understood that if the planets have their movement either in a regular circular or in a elliptical orbit, then there is no possibility of their shades casts in the cosmos over the Earth to have an opposite direction of movement against the parent object movement. In the Lotus petal line movement of the Planets along and parallel to the fixed and the integrated form of the Nakshatra groups have the chance to have the opposite direction movement of their shades.

They omitted the other Planets shades in the cosmos as if, they are not formed over the Earth as the others. The Indian Almanac designed by the Ancient Indians provides a foreseen note on the formation of different types of eclipses, the duration, the color of the eclipsed planet for the 60 cyclic years!

It is found from the Indian Almanac that two pairs of eclipses will be formed during every year and a maximum of three pairs of eclipses will be possible once in 18 months due to the transits of the shade planets in the cosmos.  Not all the eclipses forms in the cosmos can seen from a particular portion of the Earth and it can be seen only at the time of coincidence of the particular place of the earth, with the planetary positions in the cosmos at a straight line. All the eclipses forming in the from time to time, normally at span of six months in the cosmos either in full or in partial according to the position of the earth, the shade planet, the Sun or Moon.

 

        

 

 

 

    The Indian-cosmograph ABOVE provides the formation of Eclipse.  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Discoveries, inventions and the Developments of the Helios’s the Sun centered Cosmography:

 

Philosopher Kant, in 1755 A.D. expounded the theory of solar system, which systematized in 1796 by Lap lace on mathematical grounds. This system asserted the Sun is stationery

Moreover, all planets revolve in orbits in the same plane, other movements being East to west.  Keplar derived the laws regarding the motions of the planets. The phenomenon of eclipses and New moon also explained. May be these were the foundations to enunciate the coincidence of all orbits of the planets with equator in the same plane.

Ptolemy. An Egyptian Sailor and Astronomer were also in the opinion that the Earth is at the Center of the Cosmos. But the then Astronomers like Galileo, Aristotle, Gophernicloles, Kant and Keplar derived that the Sun in the center and the other planets including the Earth with its spinning movement  and the Moon as its sub-planet to the Earth are revolving around the sun in the elliptical orbits in the cosmos.

Further, they discovered the new planets Neptune, Uranus and Pluto and included them beyond the position of the Planet Saturn in the cosmos.  They invented the Helios’s system of cosmos and order of the planets by using the Ancient Indians’ geo-centric cosmography. It understood that they gave no importance to the stellar positions in the cosmos as if, they too were unaware of the particulars about the integrated form of the stellar groups in the Universe at the time of their invention.

 

                   A closer study of the causes, which made them to develop a system against the existing one, the reasons, may be the following:

They were in the opinion that the geo-centrism arrived on mere religious faiths and had no scientific reasoning.

They had no belief on the explanations given by the religionist on the formation of the eclipses were based upon mere faiths.

They wanted to prove the phenomenon of eclipses on scientific facts.

They developed the Helios’s by making some alterations in the order of the Planets against the order of the planetary system found in the Geo-centric system, where, the geo-centrist too felt that the planets are revolving in regular circular orbits around the earth in the Cosmos. They too had no idea about the exact location of the 27 stellar in the earth- centered cosmos and the stellar energy causes the movements of the planets and keeps the Earth at the center of the cosmos with a constant spinning movement.

They knew, when the planets are in regular circular orbit, then it might not be possible to prove the duration of time and the formation of eclipses to the actual occurrence of eclipses once in six in the cosmos. As if, the sun, moon and the earth are happen to be in straight-line at a frequent interval of 15 days of time in the Cosmos.  To avoid the same they opted for the elliptical orbits around the Sun for the movements of the planets around the Sun.

          THE BELOW PICTURE SHOWS THE PLANATERY POSITIONS IN THE HELIO SYSTEM OF COSMOGRAPHY:

 

 

 

They invented the Cosmograph , in which the Sun placed at the center of the Cosmos. Further, they added the elliptical orbits around the Sun to the each planet founded in the geo-center cosmography planets. They allotted the planetary positions around the sun by adopting the time taken by the each planet as detailed in the ancient Indians cosmography.  If, they strictly adhere the periods of the planets, they would have placed the moons orbit near the Sun at it has only 27 days. As it seems impossible and they neglected the moons period and placed the Mercury’s orbit next to the Sun which has 88 days, followed by Venus, the Earth in the place of Sun, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune and Pluto. As they found no place for the moon according to the sidereal periods, they assumed and allotted the moon as a sub-planet to the Earth and considered it motion around the Earth.

They rejected all the eight kinds of motions suffered by the planets in the cosmos, as they were derived mere superstitious and illations.  They proved the retrograde motions of the planets explained in the Ancient Indians Cosmography by explain the movement of a train against the stationed train of plot form, a passenger in the stationery train has the backward movement of feeling when comparing the forward movement of the staring train.  Further, they proved that the formation of eclipses in the cosmos once in six month, even the position of the sun, moon and the earth happens to in a straight line once in 15 days. This found due to their movements around the Sun in the elliptical orbits, where the planets may positioned at different locations in the cosmos when the transits through the Major and Minor axis portions of the elliptical orbits.

They explained that all the planets including the earth with its spinning movement and the moon as its sub-planet are moving in the same plane of elliptical orbits with the energy received form the Sun and proved the formation of eclipses beyond any doubt.  These made the then astronomers to accept the Helios is which seems to be within the scientific facts and rejected the geo-centric cosmography.  It is quite unfortunate that none had gone through the earth its sub-planet which have different types of motions. The earth has a spinning movement and a movement along the elliptical pathway around the sun and the Moon has the movement around the Earth and along the pathway along the elliptical pathway around the Sun.

It is found that a self rotating body which has a spinning movement along the elliptical way

Cannot have a constant self-rotation when it transit through the major and the minor axis portion, where the varied forces can seen.  If it moves, some disturbance must felt over the earth due to the varied spinning movement of the Earth, which causes the Gravitational force of the earth in the Cosmos. The Moon, which rounds the Earth, may also has the varied or disturbed movement due to force received from the Sun as there is no deviation in the gravitational force can seen,  From this, it realized that the twin planets have no chance to move around the Sun in the elliptical orbit. Like wise, no other planets can move around the Sun in the elliptical orbits in their positions.

Further, in the Helios’s, it explained that the formations of Solar and Lunar eclipses are formed in the cosmos the position of the Moon and earth with reference to the Sun. The Node, which is the position of the moon or the shade of the earth or the position of the earth, which causes the eclipses and no reference, to the color variations seen in the eclipsed planets. It realized that the lunar eclipse formed due to obscure of the Earth’s node or its shade. The Solar eclipse formed out of the Moon’s position between the sun and the earth, and the color of the eclipsed planet always be either Black or Red in color which represents the earth or moon as the obscure matter, and have no chance to have the color variations as Red and Black in the Solar and Lunar eclipses.

Conclusion:

         

            Ebenezer burgess, when he was in India during 1858, he translated the Indian

Astronomical treatise and noted,” Much yet remains to be done, before the History and use of the system of asterisms, as a part of the ancient Hindu Astronomy and Astrology shall be fully understood.  There is in existence an abundant literature, ancient and modern, upon the subject, which will doubtless at some times provoke laborious investigation, and repay it with interesting results. We have already allotted to the Nakshatras more space than to some may seen advisable; our excuse must be the interest of the history of the system; as part of the ancient history of the rise and spread of Astronomical Science, the importance attaching to the researches of M.Biot, the inadequate attention hither to paid them, and the recent renewal of their discussion in the journals

Des savants, and finally and especially, the fact that in and with the asterisms is bound up the whole history of Hindu Astronomy, prior to the transformation under the overpowering influence of the Western Science.”

 

                The developments and the inventions in the Mechanical, Agricultural, Industrial and other fields in the Western countries, made them to have fresh enquiries about the Astronomical Theories. During that time, most of the religions in the world whether knowingly or unknowingly followed the Geo-centric Cosmography. The then all-religious heads could not provide the proper reasoning about the geo-centric cosmographic theories, where the eclipses are forming the in cosmos by the examples such as sol lowing of the planets by the Snakes and the biting of the Dogs.  These made the then Astronomers with the curiosity to find the reasoning of the formation of Eclipses in the cosmos based upon the physical science.

The curiosity made them, to avoid the basic principles in the Geo-centrism. They are (i) The order of the planetary positions, ii). The eight kinds of movements of the planets with reference to fixed and the integrated form of the Nakshatras in the Cosmos, iii).The continuously generated energy from the Nakshatras causes the movements of the Planets and to upkeep the fixed position of the earth at the center and with a constant spinning movement. Iv)The shade planets formed over the surface of the earth due to the penetrated rays of the nakshatras through the planets Saturn, Mars, and Jupiter, which causes the occurrence of the eclipses in the Cosmos.

By considering the sidereal periods of the planets to complete one round along and parallel to the fixed Nakshatras of the planets in their positions, they invented the Helios’s system of cosmography, which had the criticisms by the then scholar Ebenezer Burgess. It revealed, it is quite unfortunate to the then astronomers as they have no opportunity to have the details of the fixed and the integrated form of the fixed Nakshatras which forms the cosmos around the Earth. Which lead them to think otherwise even without briefing about the critical movements of the twin planets Earth and the Moon, which have their movement along the elliptical orbit around the Sun

.

In fact, it is not the aim to find the flaws in the system. But to high-light the neglected or a dead system found to be with in the laws of science , by evolving the position of the fixed and the integrated form of the Nakshtra groups, which forms the Cosmos  by using, The Surya siddhantha and the Indian Almanac.  In modern times, it is understood that most of the Scholars are behind mere in faiths by considering the mere distance of the locations of the Nakshatras groups from the earth and not ready to accept that the Nakshatras energy causes the movements of the planets in the cosmos on scientific grounds!

 

                    It found in India that the Science based Ancient Indians Geo-centric Cosmography transformed into religious base and observed by the Indians in their all lifestyles! In India, an  auspicious  or  inauspicious events, they start their events, by narrating the cosmic details like, the name of the current Kalpa, Manvantara,Yuga,Geographical location, the name of the year among the 60 cycle of years, the name of the Month, the name of the Paksha, the name of the week day, the Nakshtra group, through which the moon transits, the names of their ancestors and their relation-ship to  the particular individual, his name and the Nakshatra group when he took birth.. But, some of the Indians too have no belief over the practice of the Ancient Indians’ geocentric cosmic theories as if they could not compared them with the existing Helios’s system of Astronomy in which all the planetary positions had changed.

 

                    In India, all the Astronomical events are practiced in the form of rituals in the daily life. .Special events, such as the formations of eclipses in the cosmos, the Full and New moon periods, the transit period of the Sun from one constellation to the other, and the transit  period of the planets from one constellation to the other constellation. In all above events, in general , the cosmic energy  which acts around the earth causes the desired and undesired  actions over the men and matter on the earth, to set-right them  by the Dos and  Don’ts.  To keep the Do’s and Don’ts by the illiterates they provided the examples such as the snake sallow the planets at the time of eclipses and the certain thing should not carried out.

 

                   In the last few centuries, the geo-centrist failed to explain to the then enquirers, in scientific ways about the occurrence of the eclipses, the retrograde motions of the planets and the opposite movement of the shade planets Rahu and Kethu in the cosmos, as they forgot the Fixed and the integrated form of the Nakshatras groups in the cosmos.

              Now it understood with the evaluation of the Fixed and the integrated form of the 27 nakshatras groups with reference to the Earth’s equator, which forms the Oneness Universe. The energies released by the nakshatras group within the Cosmic-shell, causes the movements of the planets in the Cosmos and stationery position of the Earth with a constant spinning movement in the Cosmos. I request the Scholars and the Astronomers to review the same, if it done without any bias, which will do the betterment of the Men and matter on the Earth.

 

Bibliography:

1. Surya Siddhhantha –A textbook of Hindu Astronomy-Burgess Ebenezer

2. Critical study of ancient Hindu Astronomy-Somayaj D.A

3. Eclipse cult in the Vedas, Bible, and Koran-A supplement to drpsa-Sahastry.

4. Rudimentary Astronomy-Main (Robert)

5. Study of Solar System-Chamers George F)

6. Lessons in Astronomy including Uranography-Young (Charles A)

7. Astronomy has the earth movements Detailed Study-(Subramanya Sastri V)

8. Elements of Descriptive Astronomy-Tancock

9 Indian Ephemeris and Vakya panchangas.

10. Tantra Vidya based on Archaic Astronomy and Tantric Yoga Translation from original German-          Bedekar (Hize Oscar Marcel)

***************************************************************

                                    THANK YOU

***************************************************************

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

         Notes

***************

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                                                                                                                                                                                    

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Notes

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1 Comment

  1. M.A. Padmanabha Rao, PhD (AIIMS) said,

    July 14, 2013 at 4:09 am

    LATEST DISCOVERIES IN SOLAR PHYSICS IN 2013
    1. M.A. Padmanabha Rao,
    Discovery of Sun’s Bharat Radiation emission causing Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) and UV dominant optical radiation,
    IOSR Journal of Applied Physics (IOSR-JAP), Volume 3, Issue 2 (Mar. – Apr. 2013), PP 56-60, http://www.iosrjournals.org/iosr-jap/papers/Vol3-issue2/H0325660.pdf

    2. M.A. Padmanabha Rao,
    Discovery of Self-Sustained 235-U Fission Causing Sunlight by Padmanabha Rao Effect,
    IOSR Journal of Applied Physics (IOSR-JAP), Volume 4, Issue 2 (Jul. – Aug. 2013), PP 06-24, http://www.iosrjournals.org/iosr-jap/papers/Vol4-issue2/B0420624.pdf

    EXCERPTS OF THE PAPER: Sunlight phenomenon being one of the most complex phenomena in science evaded from previous researchers. Understanding the phenomenon needed advanced knowledge in the fields of nuclear physics, X-ray physics, and atomic spectroscopy. A surprise finding, optical emission detected from Rb XRF source in 1988 led to the discovery of a previously unknown atomic phenomenon causing Bharat radiation emission followed by optical emission from radioisotopes and XRF sources reported in 2010 [10]. The same phenomenon was found causing the Sunlight. However, it took nearly 25 years of research to reach the current level of understanding the Sunlight
    phenomenon reported here.

    BREAKTHROUGHS:
    (1) On the basis of fusion, many solar lines could not be identified previously and what causes these lines remained puzzling. Though 11 solar lines could be identified by other researchers, they became questionable. The significant breakthrough has come when it became possible now to identify as many as 153 lines on the basis of uranium fission taking place on Sun’s core surface. Surprisingly, the fission products released in Chernobyl reactor accident in 1986 also seem to be present in solar flares.
    (2) Explained what are Sun’s dark spots and their cause.
    (3) For the first time, it is shown what constitutes Dark Matter and showed existence of Dark Matter in Sun.
    (4) It is explained with unprecedented detail how Bharat Radiation from fission products (radioisotopes) causes Sunlight by an atomic phenomenon known as Padmanabha Rao Effect.


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