THE INDIAN COSMOLOGY AND THE INDIAN PANCHANG


> I wish to share the Intellectual property of India, The Theories of the Indian Cosmology and the Indian Calendar, the Panchang.
>
> I hope that the Human race on the Earth obtained the knowledge about the Cosmos, which surrounds the Earth , is based upon the Geocentric Concept.
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> But, since for the past several centuries back, the Geo-centrists all over the Earth, had forgotten or no idea to which the Earth is centered in the Cosmos.
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> Ebenezer Burgess, a British Civil Administrator to India in Mumbai, had translated the Surya Siddhantha an ancient Indian Astronomical Treatise.
> In his translation left a note. In which he wrote, ” Much yet remains to be done, before the History and use of the system of asterisms, as a part of the ancient Hindu Astronomy and Astrology shall be fully understood.
> There is in existence an abundant literature, ancient and modern, upon the subject, which will doubtless at sometimes provoke laborious investigation, and repay it with interesting results. We have already allotted to the Nakshatras more space than to some may seen advisable,our excuse must be the interest of the History of the system, as part of the ancient history of the rise and spread of Astronomical Science, the importance attaching to the researches of M.Boot, the inadequate attention hither to paid them, the recent renewal of their discussion in the Journals does savant, and finally and especially, the fact that in and with the asterisms is bound up the whole history of Hindu Astronomy, prior to its information under the overpowering influence of Western science”
>
> Eventually, a labourious and a detailed study of the Nakshatras with the Indian Calendar/ Panchang and the Astronomical Treatise, the Surya Siddantha, reveals that the Earth is positioned at centre of the Cosmos and all the 27 Nakshtra groups sur- rounds the Earth, in Ascending and Descending order with reference to its Equator and its pole line. An Indian Vakiya explains the order of the 7 Planets which are positioned in the space between Nakshtragroups and the Earth in the cosmos. The order of the seven Planets from the Nakshtragroups and to the Earth are as follows, 1.Saturn, 2.Jupiter, 3.Mars, 4.Sun, 5.Venues, 6.Mercury, and 7.Moon.
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> To derive the detailed. Calendar systems initially they were in need to differentiate the routine and consecutive sun-raises over the Earth, they utilized the order of the Planets in the cosmos, and by using the theory of Hora, they arrived the order of week days as 1.Saturday, 2.Sunday, 3.Monday, 4.(Mars)Tuesday, 5.(Mercury)Wednesday, 6.(Jupiter)Thursday, and 7(Venus) Friday.

Then they classified the beginning the time of calculations are start from their 1 Swasa to Vinadi, Nazhigais, Day and Night, 15 days,or 2 pakshas, 12 months, 2 Ayanaas(Uthraayana and Dakshina ayana), 60 cycle of years, 1 Deva day, 1 Deva year, 4 Yugas, 14 Manvantras, and 8 Kalpas.

The 12 months and the 2 Ayanaas are classified on the basis of the movement of the Sun in it’s position along and parallel to the Nakshtra’s energy-line created in the Cosmos . Thus, the Sun’s transit parallel to the fixed stellar-groups in the Northern Cosmic hemisphere is known as Uthra-Ayanaa, and when the Sun transit in Southern Cosmic hemisphere is known as Dakshina-Ayanaa.

The 60 cyclic years of Indian Panchang/Calendar, clearly shows the detailed movements of all the 7 Planets and inclusive of the Shadow Planets with reference to fixed and the integrated form of the 27 Nakshtra groups around that Earth in the Cosmos with 8 kinds of movements from time-to-time for the 60 cyclic-years. Further, the Panchang shows accurately the time of occurrence of the Sun and Moon Eclipses. It details which shadow planet Rahu or kethu causes the particular Planet Sun or Moon and the color of the Eclipsed planet, during the time of eclipse occurring.

INDIAN-COSMOLOGY

The Indian Panchang provides the very important and the very basic data about how the 27 Nakshtragroups are spread -over around the Earth in the Cosmos. Since the Earth is positioned at the centre of the Fixed and the integrated form of the 27 Nakshtra-groups, the extended Earth’s equator, which acts as the Cosmic-equator and the extended Pole-line of the Earth as the Cosmic-pole-line. The Panchang details the starting points of the stellar-groups from the Cosmic equator. The first-stellar groups begins at 0 deg.and ends at 13deg.20min at the first-layer in ascending order. The 2nd stellar-group starts at the 13deg.20min.in ascending order and reaches the 2nd layer and ends at 26deg.40min.
The 3rd Nakshtra-group begins at 26deg.41min.in ascending and reaches at 40 deg. at 3rd layer.
The 4th group in ascending order and reaches at 53deg.20min, the 5th group horizontally with no ascenging or descending and ends at 66deg.40min. The North Cosmic Pole ends at this level. The 6th group starts here and reaches 80deg. in descending order. The 7th descends and reaches 93deg.20mln.and act as the connecting the Northern hemi-Sphere to the Southern hemi-spehere of the Cosmos. The 8th group starts here in descending order and reaches at 106deg.40min.,the 9th group begins here and ends at 120deg. At 120deg.the 10 the group starts in ascending order in the Southern hemi-spehere and the 11th,12th,13th groups nakshtras reaches at 173deg.20min. The 14th group 173deg.20min._186deg.40min spreads horizontally at the Southern most edge of the Cosmos. From this point the 15th,16th,17th and the 18th groups in descending order and reaches at 240 deg. From this point the 19th,20th,21st,and the 22nd groups followed consequently and reaches in ascending order at 293deg.20min, where the 21st groups spreads parallel to the Cosmic pole. The 23rd group spreads between 293deg.20min.-306deg.40min with no ascending or descending and parallel to the Cosmic Equator. The 24th,25th,26th and the 27th stellar groups descends from 306geg.40min and reaches the 0deg, where the 1st groups starts in the Cosmos. The Surya-siddhantha, an astronomical text shows that the ascending and descending ordered 27 Nakshtra groups covered Cosmos looks like an Egg, (or) 2 bowls placed one over the other with mouths thus creating a hallow space within.

In the hallow-space created by the fixed and the integrated form of 27 Nakshtra groups that is in the Egg-shaped Cosmos, the Earth is positioned at the centre of the Cosmos due to the Nakshtra’s energy and self-rotating movement due to the excess energy’s direction reveals at the centre between the 7th and the 21st groups which are spread over parallel to the Cosmic Pole. The other 7 planets,due to their eccentric placements have their 8 kinds of movements along and parallel to Nakshtra’s positions in the Cosmos. In the Surya-siddhantha, it provides the circumferential measurements of the integrated form of the nakshtra’s and the 7 Planets in the Cosmos, in yojanas units which are to be revised to the modern linear-units .But no circumferential measurement for the Earth is provided, since it is at the centre of the Nakshtra covered Cosmos. Further, the ancient Indians with their understanding that the Planets next below the Nakshtra’s , the Planet Saturn, Jupiter and the Mars have cast their shadows over the Earth, due to the stellar energy in the Cosmos. Thus formed shadows of the planets have their movements in the anti-direction of their parent planets movements that is in anti-clock-wise direction in the Cosmos , which causes the Solar and Lunar Eclipses in the Cosmos. These are fully explained in the Indian-Panchang from time to to time for 60 cyclic Years.

From the above understandings of the Ancient Indians, they derived their cosmological-theories over the Oneness Universe created with the fixed and the integrated form of the 27 Nakshtra groups that are surrounds the Earth in the Cosmos. They clubbed the 27 Nakshtra groups into 12 Constellations. Taking the movement of the Sun with reference to the Nakshtra constellations they named their 12 months. When the Sun transits in its position, parallel to the constellation groups in the Northern Cosmic hemisphere it is designated as Uthra-Ayana and when it transits in Cosmic Southern hemisphere is known as Dakshina-Ayana.

It is learnt from the detailed study of the Indian-Panchang and the Surya-siddhantha that the Ancient Indians Oneness Universe theories are derived on the acceptable Scientific facts. I hope that the Ancient Indians Nakshtra based Oneness Cosmic Theories will not get immediate acceptance by going through a glance and will be appreciated only after a deep study and discussions beyond any religious faiths. I am very happy to announce that I am to be an instrument to fulfill the desire of Sri.Ebenezer Burgess. To know more about the Indian Calendar and the Indian Cosmograph kindly log on WWW.swamycosmology.WordPress.com

SOMETHING ABOUT INDIAN PANCHANG


The Indian Panchang.

Most of us, when we heard the word PANCHANG atonce we may recogonise it, as an Astrological guide.
But the detailed study of our panchang reveals that it is a treasure trove of Astronomical datas. The Panchang is derived by the ancient Indians after inventing the fixed positions and the integrated form of the 27 stellar groups around the Earth,In the Stellar groups covered Cosmos, they found that the Earth is positioned with self rotating movement at the center of theCosmos and the other Planets such as Moon, Mercury, Venus, Sun, Mars, Jupiter, and the Saturn are positioned one over the above in different layers and which are eccnetrically positioned, have their movements parallel to the stellar energy-pathway which looks like the LOTUS FLOWER PETALS IN THIER POSITIONS WITH 8 KINDS OF MOTIONS such as 1.Retrograde, 2.Some-what retrograde 3.Traverse, 4.Slow, 5.Very Slow,6.Even,7.Swift and 8.Veryswift with Arohana (upward) and Avarohana (downward) directions to the Earth’s equator. The Panchang provides the movements of the planets in the Cosmos with reference to the Fixed stellar groups around the Earth for 60 years. From the Panchang, we can see the forecast of the formations of the eclipses and also the climatic changes.

As there is no diagramattic support to the Indian panchang, Its details are not accepted ,because,there is no graphical representation and were arrived by mere assumptions and illusions. Now, using the panchang informations, the fixed and the integrated form of the 27 stellar groups around the Earth’s ploe-line and its equator have been graphically represented through which everyone can understand that the 8 kinds of movements of the planets are possible and the formation of the shadow planets like rahu,kethu,kuligan are possible and cause the formations of eclipses.

I appeal to all that the Indian panchang shoud be included in the indian education system at all levels so that the future generation may get the sufficient knowledge in the subject to have more research activities.

For more details in Engilish kindly log on http://www.swamycosmology.wordpress.com
in Tamil kindly log on http://www.pandaiya indiyargalin vaaniyal.wordpress.com
To contact: mannaiswami@gmail.com
Cell:+919943663615

Thank you,
Your’s
R.Swaminathan


The Indian Cosmology and the time Management
INTRODUCTION;
The Ancient Indians derived their Time management from the movements of the Planets in the Cosmos with reference to the Fixed and the integrated form of the 27 Stellar groups. They designed the Time limits from micro to Macro levels and had revealed the expansion and the reduction of the Cosmos in the sense of of Time limit which is meant by most of us in its physical size. The detailed study of the Ancient Indians Macro time Calculations It reveals that the Energy released from the Stellar groups may be varied from Uga to Uga and the Planets have different speeds and the Earth may also have a different speed of self motion from Uga to Uga..For more details kindly refer The indian calender system.

Discover India through her Cosmological Inventions


DISCOVER INDIA THROUGH HER GEO-CENTRIC

                COSMOLOGICAL INVENTIONS                                                                                                                                                           

                                                                                                                     MANNAISWAMI 

 

                                              INDEX       

 

   S.No                            Contents Page No

1

The Ancient Indian Cosmography 2

2

The cosmological discoveries and inventions inIndia 3

3

The fixed and integrated form of 27 nakshtras in the cosmos at different levels w.r.to cosmic equator 4

4

Location of the nakshtra groups in the cosmos 5

5

Figurative assessment of the stellar group 6-8

6

Figurative assessment of 12 constellations 9-10

7

The Indian Calendar system 11

8

Inventions of the order of the week days 12

9

Identification of the months 13

10

Order and the movements of the planets w.r.to the fixed nakshtra groups 14

11

Circumferential Lengths of the cosmos and etc. 15

12

Speed of the planets  in the cosmos 16

13

Formation of the crescent and phases of the moon 19

14

Formation of the solar and Lunar eclipses as per Indian cosmography 20-21

15

Discoveries and inventions of the Helios system 22

16

Conclusion 25

17

Bibliography 27

 

 

 

 

 

 

 DISCOVER INDIA THROUGH HER GEO-CENTRIC

                COSMOLOGICAL INVENTIONS                                                                                                                                                           

                                                                                                                     MANNAISWAMI 

Introduction

    

                         INDIA, the sub-continent on the Earth is identified by the other part of the World with her Mount Everest in the Himalayas with the Perennial, spiritual river Ganga and with her Spiritualism. She has the richest Heritage and well known for her Yogic and spiritualistic way of life.  Her children bestowed with WISDOM OF KNOWLEDGE, who have contributed many inventions and discoveries in all lifestyles!  Among them, the cosmological inventions and discoveries made by them are the standing examples for their excellence of knowledge, which played a key- role to lead a peaceful life with humanity!

 

                         In the modern times, the spiritualistic approach of life considered, as an unscientific who has only unfolded believes of bad faiths. Such believes, which cannot be reasoned easily are considered as the spiritual or bad-faiths. If we can through of such bad faiths, we can find out the proper reasoning based upon the Ancient Indians theories of the Cosmological Inventions and Discoveries.

Ancient Indians Cosmography:

 

The Ancient Indians deciphered the difference between the MORTAL AND IMMORTAL.  They specified the mortal is the constituent of Worldly thing, which formed from time- to- time due to the chemical and physical changes, and the immortal is the part and part of the cosmic energy, which is generated by the 27 Nakshatra Groups and the planets in the Cosmos.

THE SOUL:

They designated the Soul as the and part of the cosmic energy which has also rotation on the earth with reference to the cosmic energy prevailing in the cosmos from time-to-time according to the position of the planets with reference to the earth in the Cosmos.  Therefore, the Ancient Indians defined the soul as immortal. The Soul which has a temporary Shelter when it has a connection with the mortal body made out of the Worldly things of those which are having the impact of the cosmic-energy from-time-to-time for their growth and destruction.  With their Geo-centric Oneness Universe made out of the fixed and the integrated form of the 27 Stellar, They deciphered that the immortal Soul have numerous contacts from time-to-time with the mortal bodies of the worldly things in a cyclic pattern due to the influence of the Cosmic Energy from-to-time and had claimed the theory of Re-birth! More over they, found out the relation between the worldly things with the cosmic energy with reference to their Physical and Chemical qualities in the Sphere of Earth.

                       The Cosmic- energy, which keeps a key-role on all the matters on the earth which attracts and distracts and caused for their similarities and differences among them. On visualizing the above, they found-out that the Souls are immortal in nature as they are the part and part of the Cosmic energy,  whereas the all  the other perishable maters over the earth are formed  with the combinations of the Five Factors of energies which are Air, Water, Heat, Earth and the Cosmos.

 

 

 

Cosmological Discoveries and Inventions in India:                                                    

 

                          The Ancient Indians were the pilots over the Earth to unfold the Secrets of the Cosmos, which made out of the Fixed and the integrated form of the 27 Nakshatra groups through their perishable bodies as a Model of the Cosmos!  They undertook a detailed study about the cosmic energy and how it influence over the perishable body and its Soul.  The Rishies and the Siddhars of India to extend their life-time of their  perishable bodies through  the practice of Yoga  and by repeating the particular sounds which activates the Cosmic energy around them than a normal man. Some of them tried through the Herbals and thereby developed the Ayurvedic and Siddha System of Medicine inIndia…

They found that the systematic pronunciation of sound which can vibrate the Cosmic energy and the developed the system of Mantras. Further, they had found that the different types of sounds, which are having different types of frequencies, which anything can be identified easily on the Earth with reference to the Cosmic Energy over the Earth. They understood about the direct and the indirect influences of the cosmic matters over the each matter on the Earth. Further, they found that the Lights, which are emitting from the stellar or the Nakshatras and from the planets have also their influence over the Matters of the Earth which are seen in different colors.

They had closely watched the environmental behaviors around them and noted a systematic and cyclic rotation over a span of time is mainly due to the spinning movement of the Earth and the movements of the Planets with reference to the Fixed and the integrated form of the 27 Stellar or Nakshatras in the Cosmos. Finally, they had located the exact locations of the 27 different Nakshatras groups with reference to the Earths’ Equator and its pole-line compared to the structure of the Human body. Which has a integrated form from Foot to Head Using the Human structure as the model of the Cosmos. They deciphered that the 27 different types of Nakshtra groups are spread over in the cosmos with reference to the Earths’ Equator in Ascending (Arohana), and in Descending

(Avarohana) order and complete their integrated form at the Starting point at” 0” position .They found that the Integrated form of the 27 Nakshatra groups which are positioned at the outer –most layer of the Cosmos the energy generated by them are filled within the Cosmic-Sphere surrounded by them and beyond their position to the outer side of the Cosmos .

                    The Cosmic-Sphere, which found, filled with the cosmic energy. The nakshatras energies causes for the fixed position of the Earth at the center of the cosmos. The excess residual energy derived at the center of the cosmos by the Nakshatra groups by the sides of the earth causes the Earth to have a constant spinning movement at the center of the cosmos. The other planets have their movements along and parallel  to the Fixed and the integrated form of the Nakshatras as they are positioned in eccentric positions in the Cosmic Sphere covered by the Nakshatras groups.

 

 

 

 

The Fixed positions and the integrated form of the 27 Nakshatra Groups in the Cosmos:

 

                        The Ancient Indians, initially derived their exact living locations on the sphere of the Earth by sub-dividing  with ( longitudes and latitudes ) Atchamsa rega and Deergamsa rega using the Bhumadhiya rega and the Duruva rega (Equator and the Pole-line) as the base lines to locate their exact location over the sphere of the Earth. To locate the exact positions of the Planets and the Positions of the 27 nakshatras groups in the Cosmos they extended the Latitudes. Longitudes, the Equator and the Pole-line of the Earth and named it as Cosmic Equator and the Cosmic Pole.

They had bi-sect the Cosmos into Northern and Southern Hem-sphere based upon the Cosmic Equator.To locate the Ascending and Descending order of the each natshatra group along the Pole-line based upon the Cosmic Equator. To fix the Starting and the ending positions of the each Nakshatra groups at different levels from the Cosmic- equator, along the pole line in ascending and descending order, they referred them to the structure of the normal human-body, which has four main levels of foot, thigh, stomach, neck and head.

They invented that the First Group of Nakshatra which has the starting point at the foot level which is found to be parallel to the Cosmic equator at 0 deg. and  spread over in the Cosmic Northern sector and ends at 13 ˚  20 “ in the ascending order and endsat the second layer where the thigh portion begins. Following this, the next second group of Nakshatra starts at 13 ˚

.20 ” and finishes at the 3rd layer at 26˚ 40 ” at the Stomach level in ascending order.. On continuing the 3rd ,  the 4th Nakshatra group starts at  26 ˚ 40 ” and ends at the 4th  layer, at  the neck at 40 ˚  and ends at the head at 53 ˚ 20 ” . The 5th Nakshatra group which spread at the Northern Cosmic sphere which has no Ascending or Descending order but in a part of circular arch portion between 53 ˚ 20”

and 69 ˚ 40” parallel to the Cosmic Equator .

From the outer most Northern Hemi-sphere where the 5th Stellar group spread over in row Cosmos  keeping a  same level.from53 ˚ 20 ”  to 66 ˚ 40 ”  which portion  is compared to the Head Portion, continuing this,  the 6th group of Nakshtra spreading over in the cosmos between Head and Neck portion in descending order and ends at the 80 ˚ . Similarly, the 7th group which is also found to be in the descending order starts at 80 ˚  and reaches the 93 ˚  20 ”  at the Southern Cosmic Sphere which connects the Northern and southern hemi-spheres of the Cosmos.. Similarly, the 8th and the 9th which are in continuation with the 6th are spread over in the Cosmic Southern sector in the descending Order.. Following the ninth group the 10th 11th, 12th and the 13th groups of stars spread over in the Southern Cosmic sector in the same descending order. The 14th, which is spread over at the Southern tip of the cosmic sphere as the 5th Group in the Northern Sector between173 ˚ 20 ”  and 186 ˚ 40 ” .

In continuation of the 14th group which spread at the Southern tip portion the 15th., 16th., 17th., 18th., 19th., 20th., 21st., 22nd., spread over in the Northwest Cosmic sphere in Ascending order from186 ˚ 40 ”  to 293 ˚ 20 ”  consecutively.. It seems that the 21st group is the connecting group between the Southern and Northern hemispheres of the cosmos as that of the seventh group of Nakshatra.

The 23rd, which is found spread-over in the Northwest portion of the cosmic sphere, is also in the same level and has no Ascending or descending order like the 5th group of Nakwhatra which spread over in the North-east region of the Cosmic sphere. Following the 23rd group the 24th., 25th., 26th., and the 27th groups linking with each other and spread-over in descending order between306 ˚ 40 ”   and 360 ˚  and merges with the starting point of the 1st., group at 0 ˚  at the foot or parallel to the Cosmic equator level.

The Surya Siddhantha, an astronomical Text describes the shape of the Cosmos. The Cosmos is seen in-between the two bowls, which are inversely, positioned each one at the Northern and southern tips .All the 27 Nakshatra groups are spread between the circles placed in the space between the two inverted bowels of the Cosmos. The Indian Almanac describes the ascending and descending positions of the 27 Nakshatra groups comparing to the Human structure.  The Krishna Yajur veda Sloga also describes the Cosmos. The Cosmos, which is covering by the 27 Nakshatra

groups and within the hallow space .the positions of the planets between the nakshatras and the Earth are Saturn, Jupiter, Mars, Sun, Venus, Mercury, and the Moon respectively,  They compared it to the shape of an Egg or to a Pine-apple.  All the above details made available only in the form of descriptions and in the form of Slogas, No graphical or pictorial views about the Cosmic- sphere as detailed in the Astronomical texts could found.   The Ancient Indians found that the different Nakshatra groups have their starting points in the same layer, which compared to the Human structure. The below table shows the details:

Sl.no .   Name of the Nakshtra group                                  Location in the Cosmic-Sphere  from 1 to 27(Stars groups referred with reference to Indian  almanac)   
1.. 1st   Aswin., 9th Ayily,10thMagha,18th ketta., 19thMoola and27th  revathi  All the six groups of Stellar start at the parallel and at the same level to the Cosmic Equator, in their locations in the North, North-east, South-west and North portion in ascending and descending order
2 2nd Bharani, 8th   Poosam,11th,pooram,  17thAnusha,20th poorada  & 26th Uthirada All these 6 groups begin at the first-layer (level) next to the Cosmic equator both in the North and in the Southern –hemi-sphere at Northeast, Southeast, and in South-west and North-west portions in ascending and descending order.
 3 3rd kritiga,7thpunarvasu,12th Uthiram, 16thvisaka,21st Uthirada, 25th poorattadhi These stellar groups start from the 2nd level layer from the equator both north and southern hemi-spheres at North-east, East, South-east, South-west, West, and North-west portions of the Cosmic sphere in ascending and descending order.
  4 4th Rohini,6ththiruvathirai,13th Hastha,15thSwathi,22nd Thiruvona, 24th Sadayam These groups of Nakshatras spread-over in the cosmos from the 3rd level layer from the equator in the both hemi-spheres in the Sorth-east, Southeast, South-west, North-West portions in the same manner of the other groups of stellar.
   5 5th Mirugasheer, 19thchitra23rd Avitta The 19th group stellar is positioned at tip of the Southern-hemisphere, the other two groups are positioned  one each at North-east and North-west portions of the Cosmic-Sphere.

                          

          To identify the 27 various Nakshatra groups in the Cosmic-Sphere the Ancient Indians derived the Figurative system.  In which all the Nakshatra groups are compared to the Worldly Living and Non-living matters .To asses the movement of the Sun which has its movement along and parallel to the Fixed and the integrated form of the nakshatras they combined more than two groups and formed 12 types of Constellations. The following tables serve the details at a glance.

 

Sl,no  Name of the Nakshatra Group and their angular placement found in the Cosmos. Figurative assessment to identify the each stellar group in the Cosmos
   1. Aswin 0˚ – 13˚.20” Spread over 0 to 13 ˚  20 ”  tangential arch space in the ascending order and looks like a Horse -face The moon transits through in West-Eastern direction.
   2,      Bharani 13˚ 20” -26˚ 40” As the same, this group spreads between 13 ˚ 20 ” to 26 ˚ 40 ” and looks like an Oven.
   3. Kruthiga 26˚ 40”  – 40˚ Occupies the space between 26 ˚ 40 ” to  40 ˚   and looks likes a serious of lamps kept one over the other. The Moon travels in the South-North direction.
4 Rohini 40˚-53˚20” This group looks like a crown. The Moon  moves through the North portion of the group
 5.  Mirugasheer 53˚20”-66˚40” This group seems like the three holes in the coconut shell and spread over horizontally in the same level.
 6. Arudhara 66˚40”-80˚ This group formed out of a single star, which spread over in descending order.
 7. Punarvasu 80˚-93˚20” This group formed mainly out of 7 stars over a base of 76 stars, which looks like the bottom of the Ship in the descending order. This group connects the northern and the Southern Hemi-spheres of the Cosmos.
8. Poosam 93˚20”-106˚40” This group formed out of 4 stars and  looks like a pumpkin flower inDescending order The Moon travels in the south portion of the group                                                                                                  
9 Ayilya 106˚40” -120˚ This group seems to be in a rectangular. The Moon travels south portion of this.
10 Maha 120˚ – 133˚20” This is in the form of a plough. The Moon travels right across this group in ascending order from North-south.
11 Poora 133˚20” -146˚40” This group proceeds in the same direction of the above group towards south direction and looks like the four legs of a cot.
12 Uthira 146˚40” -160˚ This group looks likes the same as the above group and the Moon transits towards south.
13 Hastha 160˚ – 173˚20˚ This group looks like the 5 fingers in the hand (or) in the form of a ear-ring.
14 Chitra 173˚20” -186˚40” This group is at the South most bottoms of the cosmos in the same level parallel to the Cosmic equator
15 Swathi 186˚40” -200˚ This is a illuminant flame of a lamp and is the tail-end of the Saptharishi Stars in descending order towards the Cosmic equator.
16 Visaka 200˚ -213˚20” This group formed out of 7 stars and looks like a damaged constructed wall portion.
17 Anusha 213˚20” -226˚40” This group formed by 9 stars and looks like the Lotus flower in the descending order. The moon moves right across this.
18 Ketta 226˚40 -240˚ Shaped like a spear and the Moon travel south of this group in descending order/
19 Moola 240˚ -253˚ 20” This looks like a long mouth organ and in ascending order.
20 Poorada 253˚20´-266˚40” This is a continuing  group of the above in ascending order.   
21 Uthirada 266˚40” -280˚ Combination of the group this group looks like the legs of a cot. The moon travels north of the above group and right in the middle of this group.
22 Sravana 280˚ -293˚20” This is in the form of a yardstick in ascending order. The moon moves south of this.
23 Avitta 293˚20” -306˚40” This group looks like a wheel and the moon travels south of this parallel to the cosmic equator.
24 Sadaya 306˚40” -320˚ This group contains 100 stars and looks like a bunch of flowers in descending order towards the cosmic equator. The moon travels south portion of this.
25 Poorattadhi 320˚ -333˚20” This is continuation of the above group in descending order.
26 Uthirattadhi 333˚20” -346˚40” The combination of this group with the above group looks lik the 4 legs of a cot. The moon travels south among these groups.
27 Revathi 346˚40” -360˚ ( 0˚) This group looks like a fish, which is descending order, and joins where the 1st group starts parallel to the cosmic equator. The moon travels south of this.

       

 

 

 

 

           Below Table shows the various constellation formed out of 27 stars.

S.No          Name of the constellation The figurative assessment to identify the each constellation in the Cosmos
1 Mesha 0˚ -30˚ (Aries) This constellation is arrived by the combination of the 1st,2nd, and a part of 3rd  Nakshatra groups  and looks like a Goat in the 0˚ – 30˚ ascending angular space from the Cosmic equator.
2 Rishaba 30˚ – 60˚ (Taurus) In continuation of the above, the integrated part of remaining the 3rd, 4th, and middle portion of the 5th Nakshtra groups compared to the shape of a Bull between 30˚-60˚ angular spaces in ascending space above the cosmic equator.
3 Mithuna 60˚ – 90˚ (Gemini) This Constellation starts from the mid portion of the 5th group and spread over in ascending order combined with the 6th and up to the 3/4th  portion of the 7th group. The 7th group, which starts in the Northen hemi-sphere and passes through the cosmic-equator, ends in the Southern hemi-sphere, where the Sun transits through this group beyond 90˚ and termed as the starting of the Dakshina ayana Of the Sun in the Cosmos. It looks like the two women standing nearby.
4 Kadaga 90˚ – 120˚ (Cancer) This constellation comprises of the 10th, 11th and 1/4th part of the 12th Nakshatra group from 90˚ – 120˚ in ascending order from the cosmic equator to the southern direction in the cosmos. This seems like a Crab.
5 Simmah 120˚ – 150˚ (Leo) This constellation identified like the face of a lion. The 10th, 11th, and 1/4th of the 12th group of stars shape this constellation, which can see in the southern hemi-sphere of the Cosmos.
6 Kanni 150˚ – 180˚ (Virgo) From the 1/4th of the 12th , 13th and up to the mid portion of the 14th  star groups, the Virgo constellation is formed in the south of the cosmic sphere. It looks like a teen-age girl.
7 Thula 180˚ – 210˚ (Libra) This constellation starting from the mid-portion of the 14th star group, which is at the dead end of the Southern cosmic sphere, which  proceeds in descending order along the 15th and up to the 3/4th portion of the 16th group. It looks like a balance, which suspended with two-pans on either side of a rod with an indicator at the center of the rod. 
8 Virchiga 210˚ – 240˚ (Scorpio) The Scorpio constellation stars from the 3/4th of the 16th star groups and continuing through the 17th and ends with the 18th Star groups. It is in the form of a Scorpion, in the southwest portion of the Cosmic southern-hemi sphere. 
10 Magara 270˚-300˚ (Capricon) This constellation starts from the cosmic equator region and extends through the 22nd and ends in the mid-portion of the 23rd group in ascending order in northwest hemi sphere of the Cosmos, It looks like a water-born living sea horse. 
11 Kumba 300˚ – 330˚ (Aquirius) Aquiris Constellation starts from the dead-end of the northern hemisphere spreads in the descending order towards the cosmic-equator along the 24th and up to the 3/4th portion of the 25th group in the northwest portion of the Cosmic-sphere, It looks like a ornate metallic Pot contained with purified water inside of the pot and covered with a coconut. 
12 Meena 330˚ – 360˚ (Pisces) Continuing the 25th group it reaches the Cosmic equator level through the 26th and the 27th group of stars it merges with the 1st group of stars which starts at 0˚ parallel to the Cosmic equator in descending order .It looks like a pair of fishes facing their tail ends with each other.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Indian Calendar System:

 

The Ancient Indians found that the environmental changes around them on the Earth have the direct and the indirect influences of the cosmic bodies such as the sun, the moon and other planets and the Nalshatras groups around the Earth.  After a keen observation over the systematic changes in the climate, and the positions of the Stars, Sun, Moon and other planets in the Cosmos around the Earth, they tried initially, to locate their position on the earth. From this, it can be understand beyond any doubt from the Almanac designed by the Ancient Indians  and the Astronomical text The Surya Siddhantha , and other related texts that the Ancient Indians were the pilots not only in discovering the Astronomical facts but also to discover that the Earth is  a spinning sphere!

To locate their positions on the Sphere of the Earth, they bi-sect the sphere by drew a line across the sphere and termed it as Bhu-madhiya rega , the axis of the earth sphere as Bhu-achu or other known as Cosmic-equator and cosmic pole-line.   To have more accuracy, further they sub-divided the sphere area by introducing the Atcha and Deerga rega, later, which known as Longitudes and latitudes.  They were well aware of that the raising as well as the setting of the Sun at varies places gradually differ due to their longitudinal positions is due to the spinning movement of the Earth in the Cosmos. They used to ascertain the actual moment of the raising and the setting of the sun

Through the shadows formed on the earth by the rays of the Sun and found that they used many more methods to arrive the same.

While they observed the space, they noted the gradual development and the gradual diminishing of the Moon in the space at some frequent intervals of time. They noticed that particular stars groups are visible in the space for a long-duration.  After had a keen observation, they separated the planets Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn from the Stars groups while they too seem like the stars in the Space.  To arrive the exact locations of the Star-Groups, Planets position from their observation points, they evolved a detailed time calculation methods,  They used a normal man’s  time-duration between  an inhaling-ex-haling of his breath and the time  duration between his normal opening and shutting  down of his eye-lids , as the basic units for the time-calculations.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

      1 swasa (breathing time)           =     1 Prana (Normal time between inhaling and exhaling)

      6 prana              =       1 palams

60 palams          =      1 nashigai

60 nazhigaies    =     1 Day or      (0ne Arohana or oneAvarohana Nakshatra                    

Through which the Planet moon transits)

15 Days              =      1 paksha    (Which denotes the movement of the Moon along

                                                             And parallel to the fixed star-groups of the                                                                                             

                                                             Fixed star- groups in the Cosmos either in

                                                             Developing or in diminishing in her shape)                                                                           

      2 Pakshas          =        1 month    (which denotes the transit of the Sun along the

                                                             Parallel to a constellation)

      12 months          =    1Year (or)     (which denotes the time taken by the Sun to

1 Deva day   Complete one round along and parallel to the

                                                             Star-groups fixed in the Cosmos with reference to

      360 Deva days       =     1 Deva Year.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      

         1 chatur yuga     =    1 Manvanthara (Chatur Yuga consists of four Yugas.1.Kali.2.Duvapara..

                                                                       3. Thretha and 4.Krutha Yuga

     14 Manvantharas  =    1 Kalpa (There are 7 kalpas in practice and the present

Running Kalpa known as Sriswedavaraga

Kalpa which is found to be first one among the 

                                                         Other 6 Kalpas.)

 

Invention of the order of the days in a week:

 

         The Ancient Indians defined the period of 60 Nazhigaies between a Sun raise and the Sun set.

As they found numerous Sun raises and the Sunsets are taking place over the earth, to identify the same they used the order of the planets between the 27 Nakshatra groups and the Earth in the Geo-centric principles. The order of the planets in the Geo-centric theories between the Fixed stellar groups and the earth which are 1.Saturn, 2.Jupiter, 3,Mars, 4.Sun, 5,Venus, 6.Mercury,and .Moon from the stellar respectively. Considering the starting of a new yuga, the 1st positioned planet merges with the initial sun raise of that yuga for a period of 2 1/2 Nazhigaies (or) an hour. Continuing the Saturn, the other planets merge with the Sun raise in a cyclic manner. Thus 3 complete cycles of the order of the planets merges with the Sun raise, when 21 hours lapsed the 4th turn starts with the 1st planet Saturn and the 24th hour ends with the planet Mars. Following this the 25th hour which merges with the new sun-raise which co-inside with the next order of the planet Sun.  Continuing this cyclic pattern with reference to the order of the planets in the cosmos the third sun raise starts with the planet Mars, the 4th sun raise with the Mercury, the fifth sun raise merges with Jupiter, the 6th Sun raise starts with the Venus.

The adoption of Planets between the sun raises, and the arrival of the weekdays the system known as the “Hora.” and  Prof.H.H.Wilson  expressed that the origin of the arrangement not ascertained very precisely, as it was unknown to the Greeks, and not adopted by the Roman until a late period. It commonly ascribed to the Egyptians, but no sufficient authority, and the Hindus inIndiato have at least as good as to the invention of any other people. The Hora system, derived by the Ancient Indians is still in force and followed by the Indians in their daily occupations.

 

Identification of Months:

The Ancient Indians identified the twelve cyclic months with reference to the transit position of the Sun and Moon along and parallel to the Nakshatras groups in their positions. Accordingly, they named after the Sun while it transits through twelve constellation namely 1.Mesha (Aeries).2.Rishaba (Taurus), 3.Mithuna (Gemini).4.Kadaga (Cancer), 5.Simah (Leo), 6, Kanya (Virgo), 7.Tula (Libra).8.Virchiga (Scorpio), 9.Dahus (Sagittarius), 10.Magara (Capricorn), 11.Kumba.(Acquires), 12.Meena (Pisces). In addition to that they identified months with reference yo the transit position of the Moon through a particular Nakshatra (stellar) group when the Full Moon occurs and identified with that particular Nakshatra group. 1. Chaitram.(14th Group). 2. Vaisakam  (16th group), 3.Jeyshtam (18th group), 4. Ashadam  (20th group), 5.Sravanam  (22nd group, 6.Pathrapadam (25th group), 7.Aajveejam (1st group), 8.kruthigam (3rd group), 9Arudhara (6th group), 10,Pushiyam (8th group). 11. Magam (10th group), 12.Palguanm (12th group),                                                                                                                                  

 

Order and movements of the Planets:                                                                           

 

               The Ancient Indians found that the three energies which are formed out of Air, Water, and Heat, which are the common factors over the Earth. Further, they compared the energies to the Stars, the Planets and to the earth and classified as the cosmic energy and the Energy of earth. They invented that the five energies are main factors in deciding the environment over the Earth. Accordingly, constant and keen observations with the five factor of energies, they evolved 60 different years and identified them by individual names. They derived necessary formulae to ascertain the movement of the each planet with reference to the fixed and the integrated form of the 27 nakshatras in the cosmos for every individual year.  From the above circumstance, it is easy to understand that at the time of formatting the Calendar system there was no religion.  However, in later, the followers of the geo-centric principles who had practiced made them as a religion. But in the recent centuries, The geo-centric cosmic theories which are treated as a part of the religion had been purposefully neglected       being it is assumed as based upon religious faith.

From the above Ancient Indians Timetable, this can easily ascertained that the Studies about Cosmology inIndiatook place even before 6 kalpas of period! From this, it can be realized initially the Ancient Indians had discovered the fixed and the integrated form of the 27 Nakshatras, the 7 kinds of Planets, the shape of the earth as a Sphere,. Further they, based upon their discoveries made in the Cosmic Studies, they invented that the Cosmic – sphere that made out of the fixed and the integrated form of the 27 Nakshatra groups, which looks like the shape of an Egg or of a Pineapple.

In-side of the hallow egg-sphere, they invented the positions of the Planets the space between the Nakshatra groups and to the Earth in descending order Saturn, Jupiter, Mars, Sun, Venus, Mercury, and the Moon. Since for the last few centuries, it i found that the followers of the geo-centric cosmic principles inIndiahad forgotten the original, the fixed, and the integrated form of the 27 nakshatra and the movements of the planets along and parallel to the fixed format of the nakshatras groups, by which the cosmos is made! They simply believed only in the positions and order of the planets and their time-taken to complete one round in the cosmos around the Earth in the cosmos.  They were unable to reconcile the fixed and the integrated form of the 27 nakshatras with reference to the earth, which are available in the Surya siddhantha and in the Almanac in a hidden manner!

The Ancient Indians, Chinese, Babylonians, Arabs, and other Western thinkers had formulated their findings and thus various treatises are available on this. However, the experts in the field like Cole-brook and Ebenezer Burgess are of the views that the Indians were the pioneers and for most on expounding on the subject.  Burgess felt that the positions of the constellations, which could not precisely understood in the Hindu Astronomy by the then Indians and further studies of the Hindu astronomical concepts, could reveal more information and lead to have more enlighten. Further Burgess felt that the Hindu system of astronomy had relegated the positioning of the Stellar constellation to a lesser important place, the fact remains in the Hindu life style.

The Ancient Indians after discovering the basic factors such as the fixed and the integrated format of the 27 Nakshata groups around the Earth, the exact locations of the Planets between the Nakshatras and the Earth they concentrated on the movements of the planets with reference to the Fixed stellar in the Cosmos.  They had precisely ascertained that the cosmic energy is the basic cause for the movements of the planets with reference to the Fixed and the integrated form of the stellar groups in the cosmos and the Earth to have a stationery position at the center of the Cosmos.

The spinning movement to the earth is due to the excess energy realized at the center of the cosmos. Out of the two stellar groups, which do the sides of the Earth in the Cosmos position, where the Earth positioned in the center of the Cosmos has an undisturbed regular spinning movement.  Further, they understood the cause for the movement of the Planets along and parallel to the fixed and the intenerated format of the stellar groups is the eccentric placement in the cosmic sphere,

They critically investigated and found that positive as well as negative kind of forces from the stellar groups suffers the movement s of the planets, which are in eight kinds. The eight kinds of motions of the planets along and parallel to the fixed stellar groups in the Cosmos are 1.Vakra (Retrograde) 2.Anu-vakra (somewhat retrograde) 3.Kutila (Traverse), 4.Mandha (slow), 5.Mandhatara (Very Slow), 6.Sama (Even), 7.Cigara (Fast), and 8.Cigaratara (Very Fast).

 

They found that the Earth, which is at the center of the Cosmic-shell, has no movement along and parallel to the fixed position of the stellar groups like the other planets. The earth has the self-rotation movement, which causes the Gravitation force around the Earth in the Cosmic-shell. The other planets, completes one round starting from the parallel level to the cosmic equator and passes through in ascending  as well as in descending order all over the inner shell of the cosmos, covering the entire northern and southern hemi-sphere and finished one round from where they started..

They fully understood when the objects have their movements in ascending and in descending order with reference to the Cosmic equator then the pathway so created by the stellar in the cosmos must be in an irregular position and compared the same to the Lotus Petal-line format…

The followers of the geo-centrism, had forgotten this critical pathway of the planets in the cosmos, No planet in the cosmos keeps a constant distance from the Earth, as they are in continuously move along and parallel to the Fixed star groups behind them. So they provided the total circumferential distances for each planet in their positions and the total circumferential distance of the Fixed and the integrated form of the 27 stellar groups.  In addition to that, they provided the total circumferential stellar energy extended beyond the stellar groups, through which it understood that the stellar energy could also spread all over within the cosmic-shell.

 

 The following table provides the circumferential lengths.

 Sl.no                

Details

 

Circumferential length

(in Yojanas)

1

The Universe

18,112,080,864,000,000

2

The fixed and the integrated  form of stellar groups

259,890,000

3

Saturn

127,688,285

4

Jupiter

51,375,764

5

Mars

8,146,909

6

Sun

4,351,000

7

Venus

2,664,637

8

Mercury

1,043,209

9

Moon

324,000

.

Note:  In the above table, the Yojana mentioned referred to the linear Astronomical Unit for which No exact equaling modern measuring unit derived. At present One Yojanea is equated to 5 Miles or 8.045Kilometer.(approximation).

The Ancient Indians, after arriving the total circumferential lengths of each planet and the fixed and the integrated form of the stellar groups and the energy line extended beyond out side of the stellar groups in the Cosmos. They discovered the average time taken by the each planet to complete on round along and parallel to the fixed and the integrated format of the Nakshatra groups within the Cosmic shell, considering all the eight kinds of motions.  Later, the then Investigators and Astronomers considered the movements of the planets along and parallel to the fixed stellar format as the Sidereal periods of the planets in the cosmos. 

 

   The following table provides the time-taken by the each planet to complete one round in the inner shell of the cosmos, along and parallel to the fixed stellar groups.

 

Sl.No                                                                                                                            

Name of the  Planet

Time-taken to complete one-round around the Cosmos along and parallel to the Fixed and the integrated form of the Nakshatras                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      
 1

Saturn

30 years or 10956 days

2

Jupiter

12 years or 4383 days.

3

Mars

18 Months or 687 days

4

Sun

12 Months or 365 days

5

Venus

225 days

6

Mercury

88 days

7

Moon

27days.

It is noticed that when equating the data’s shown in the above tables with the relation between the time and the distance that the Planets are moving in a equal speed of motion along and parallel to the fixed and the integrated form of the Nakshatra groups.

The following table provides the speed of the individual planet in the cosmos

.

Sl.no Name of the  Planets

Circumferential Length

Time taken to complete one

Round (in Days)

Speed of the Planet

(in Yojana/Hour )

 1 Saturn

127,688,285

10956

485.6083

 2 Jupiter

51,375,754

4383

486.3958

 3. Mars

8,146,909

687

494.1125

 4. Sun

4,351,000

365

496.3500

 5. Venus

2,664,637

225

493,4458

 6.  Mercury

1,043,209

88

493.9416

 7.  Moon

324,000

27

493.9600

From the Speed of the Planets, it comes to understand that all the planets in the Cosmos are in more or less in the equal speed of motion. With reference to the Indians Almanac, it is found that the planets the Sun and the Moon only have not suffered by the retrograde motion among all others are facing the retrograde movements due to the Negative magnitude forces of the Nakshatras groups. This may be the cause to the Ancient Indians to give more importance to the Sun and Moon.

           According to the Ancient Indians the Fixed and the integrated form of the Nakshtra        Groups, which forms the Cosmic Shell, found not to be either in a regular Circular or in a regular elliptical shape but in a irregular format due to the ascending and descending orders of the Nakshatras with reference to the Cosmic equator. This causes the movements of the planets in their position in the inner portion of the cosmic shell parallel to the Nakshatra groups in an irregular Shape, which looks like the outer circumference of the peals of a Lotus flower.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

THE BELOW PICTURE SHOWS THE PLAN OF THE FIXED AND THE INTEGRATED

FORM OF THE 27 STARS IN THE COSMOS WITH REFERENCE TO THE EARTH’S EQUATOR AND ITS POLE LINE WHICH LOOKS LIKE A LOTUS PETAL LINE PATHWAY.

THE BELOW PICTURE SHOWS THE PLANETARY POSITIONS IN THE STELLAR COVERED

                        COSMOS AS ON 20.08.1953 AT THANJAVUR,TAMILNADU.

The formation of Crescent and Phases of the Moon:

                The Ancient Indians invented that all the Planets within the inner shell of the Cosmos, have their movements in their position along and parallel to the Positions of the Nakshatra groups, in the inner-space of the cosmic shell and the pathway looks like the circumferential line connecting all edges of a lotus petals and  termed as  Lotus petal-line pathway.

 

                 They found that the Moon takes an average duration of 27 days to complete one round through the lotus petal-line pathway and completes all the 360˚. During the same period, the Sun transits in the petal-line pat way in its position only up to 30˚. The commencement of the new moon takes place at any time when the moon transits between 0˚ to 30˚ tangential curvature space inside of the cosmos in its position and merge with the level and position of Sun in the same 0˚ to 30˚ tangential curvature space in its position.  The angular deviation, the depart movement in the descending and ascending order of the moon with reference to the positions of the Sun, causes the Formation and the  development of the Crescent Moon. When the moon reaches the opposite position to the Sun, the Full moon shines in the Cosmos. Continuing her movement in the cosmos towards the transit position of the Sun , which once again makes the moon merge with parallel level of the sun in her position in the next 30˚ to 60˚ Cosmic sphere and a new moon  commences once again!  The sufficient details provided in the Almanac about the day-to-day movements of all the planets with reference to the Fixed Nakshstras in the Cosmos.

The following Graph in the following page shows the details of the developing and diminishing shape of the Moon.

 

             

Formations of the Lunar and Solar Eclipse:

 

             The inventions and the critical studies about the formations of the lunar and the solar eclipses made by the Ancient Indians are the examples for their outstanding excellence of intelligence over the science of Physics!  They knew when a bright object seen through a color screen then the object would also see as the color of the Screen.  They undertook a closer observation and noted the color variation over the lunar and solar eclipses and both of them were seen light red and black in color. This made them that shade as screen, which falls over the Earth and obscure the bright objects the Sun and Moon while they are passing through it in the cosmos.

Then they invented the cause of the formation of the screen like shade and the movement of the same in the Cosmos.  It is normal to see that the shade of an object have its direction of movement along the movement and direction of the object.  They invented that the shade of an object, which has its shade casts through the penetrated rays of light behind it, which have its movement of direction, is in opposite direction of the object.   They realized that the shades of the planets Saturn, Jupiter and Mars are formed due to the penetrated rays of Nakshatra groups behind them and identified them by their colors that are in Black, Red and Yellow respectively in the Cosmos.

From this, it is understood that if the planets have their movement either in a regular circular or in a elliptical orbit, then there is no possibility of their shades casts in the cosmos over the Earth to have an opposite direction of movement against the parent object movement. In the Lotus petal line movement of the Planets along and parallel to the fixed and the integrated form of the Nakshatra groups have the chance to have the opposite direction movement of their shades.

They omitted the other Planets shades in the cosmos as if, they are not formed over the Earth as the others. The Indian Almanac designed by the Ancient Indians provides a foreseen note on the formation of different types of eclipses, the duration, the color of the eclipsed planet for the 60 cyclic years!

It is found from the Indian Almanac that two pairs of eclipses will be formed during every year and a maximum of three pairs of eclipses will be possible once in 18 months due to the transits of the shade planets in the cosmos.  Not all the eclipses forms in the cosmos can seen from a particular portion of the Earth and it can be seen only at the time of coincidence of the particular place of the earth, with the planetary positions in the cosmos at a straight line. All the eclipses forming in the from time to time, normally at span of six months in the cosmos either in full or in partial according to the position of the earth, the shade planet, the Sun or Moon.

 

        

 

 

 

    The Indian-cosmograph ABOVE provides the formation of Eclipse.  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Discoveries, inventions and the Developments of the Helios’s the Sun centered Cosmography:

 

Philosopher Kant, in 1755 A.D. expounded the theory of solar system, which systematized in 1796 by Lap lace on mathematical grounds. This system asserted the Sun is stationery

Moreover, all planets revolve in orbits in the same plane, other movements being East to west.  Keplar derived the laws regarding the motions of the planets. The phenomenon of eclipses and New moon also explained. May be these were the foundations to enunciate the coincidence of all orbits of the planets with equator in the same plane.

Ptolemy. An Egyptian Sailor and Astronomer were also in the opinion that the Earth is at the Center of the Cosmos. But the then Astronomers like Galileo, Aristotle, Gophernicloles, Kant and Keplar derived that the Sun in the center and the other planets including the Earth with its spinning movement  and the Moon as its sub-planet to the Earth are revolving around the sun in the elliptical orbits in the cosmos.

Further, they discovered the new planets Neptune, Uranus and Pluto and included them beyond the position of the Planet Saturn in the cosmos.  They invented the Helios’s system of cosmos and order of the planets by using the Ancient Indians’ geo-centric cosmography. It understood that they gave no importance to the stellar positions in the cosmos as if, they too were unaware of the particulars about the integrated form of the stellar groups in the Universe at the time of their invention.

 

                   A closer study of the causes, which made them to develop a system against the existing one, the reasons, may be the following:

They were in the opinion that the geo-centrism arrived on mere religious faiths and had no scientific reasoning.

They had no belief on the explanations given by the religionist on the formation of the eclipses were based upon mere faiths.

They wanted to prove the phenomenon of eclipses on scientific facts.

They developed the Helios’s by making some alterations in the order of the Planets against the order of the planetary system found in the Geo-centric system, where, the geo-centrist too felt that the planets are revolving in regular circular orbits around the earth in the Cosmos. They too had no idea about the exact location of the 27 stellar in the earth- centered cosmos and the stellar energy causes the movements of the planets and keeps the Earth at the center of the cosmos with a constant spinning movement.

They knew, when the planets are in regular circular orbit, then it might not be possible to prove the duration of time and the formation of eclipses to the actual occurrence of eclipses once in six in the cosmos. As if, the sun, moon and the earth are happen to be in straight-line at a frequent interval of 15 days of time in the Cosmos.  To avoid the same they opted for the elliptical orbits around the Sun for the movements of the planets around the Sun.

          THE BELOW PICTURE SHOWS THE PLANATERY POSITIONS IN THE HELIO SYSTEM OF COSMOGRAPHY:

 

 

 

They invented the Cosmograph , in which the Sun placed at the center of the Cosmos. Further, they added the elliptical orbits around the Sun to the each planet founded in the geo-center cosmography planets. They allotted the planetary positions around the sun by adopting the time taken by the each planet as detailed in the ancient Indians cosmography.  If, they strictly adhere the periods of the planets, they would have placed the moons orbit near the Sun at it has only 27 days. As it seems impossible and they neglected the moons period and placed the Mercury’s orbit next to the Sun which has 88 days, followed by Venus, the Earth in the place of Sun, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune and Pluto. As they found no place for the moon according to the sidereal periods, they assumed and allotted the moon as a sub-planet to the Earth and considered it motion around the Earth.

They rejected all the eight kinds of motions suffered by the planets in the cosmos, as they were derived mere superstitious and illations.  They proved the retrograde motions of the planets explained in the Ancient Indians Cosmography by explain the movement of a train against the stationed train of plot form, a passenger in the stationery train has the backward movement of feeling when comparing the forward movement of the staring train.  Further, they proved that the formation of eclipses in the cosmos once in six month, even the position of the sun, moon and the earth happens to in a straight line once in 15 days. This found due to their movements around the Sun in the elliptical orbits, where the planets may positioned at different locations in the cosmos when the transits through the Major and Minor axis portions of the elliptical orbits.

They explained that all the planets including the earth with its spinning movement and the moon as its sub-planet are moving in the same plane of elliptical orbits with the energy received form the Sun and proved the formation of eclipses beyond any doubt.  These made the then astronomers to accept the Helios is which seems to be within the scientific facts and rejected the geo-centric cosmography.  It is quite unfortunate that none had gone through the earth its sub-planet which have different types of motions. The earth has a spinning movement and a movement along the elliptical pathway around the sun and the Moon has the movement around the Earth and along the pathway along the elliptical pathway around the Sun.

It is found that a self rotating body which has a spinning movement along the elliptical way

Cannot have a constant self-rotation when it transit through the major and the minor axis portion, where the varied forces can seen.  If it moves, some disturbance must felt over the earth due to the varied spinning movement of the Earth, which causes the Gravitational force of the earth in the Cosmos. The Moon, which rounds the Earth, may also has the varied or disturbed movement due to force received from the Sun as there is no deviation in the gravitational force can seen,  From this, it realized that the twin planets have no chance to move around the Sun in the elliptical orbit. Like wise, no other planets can move around the Sun in the elliptical orbits in their positions.

Further, in the Helios’s, it explained that the formations of Solar and Lunar eclipses are formed in the cosmos the position of the Moon and earth with reference to the Sun. The Node, which is the position of the moon or the shade of the earth or the position of the earth, which causes the eclipses and no reference, to the color variations seen in the eclipsed planets. It realized that the lunar eclipse formed due to obscure of the Earth’s node or its shade. The Solar eclipse formed out of the Moon’s position between the sun and the earth, and the color of the eclipsed planet always be either Black or Red in color which represents the earth or moon as the obscure matter, and have no chance to have the color variations as Red and Black in the Solar and Lunar eclipses.

Conclusion:

         

            Ebenezer burgess, when he was in India during 1858, he translated the Indian

Astronomical treatise and noted,” Much yet remains to be done, before the History and use of the system of asterisms, as a part of the ancient Hindu Astronomy and Astrology shall be fully understood.  There is in existence an abundant literature, ancient and modern, upon the subject, which will doubtless at some times provoke laborious investigation, and repay it with interesting results. We have already allotted to the Nakshatras more space than to some may seen advisable; our excuse must be the interest of the history of the system; as part of the ancient history of the rise and spread of Astronomical Science, the importance attaching to the researches of M.Biot, the inadequate attention hither to paid them, and the recent renewal of their discussion in the journals

Des savants, and finally and especially, the fact that in and with the asterisms is bound up the whole history of Hindu Astronomy, prior to the transformation under the overpowering influence of the Western Science.”

 

                The developments and the inventions in the Mechanical, Agricultural, Industrial and other fields in the Western countries, made them to have fresh enquiries about the Astronomical Theories. During that time, most of the religions in the world whether knowingly or unknowingly followed the Geo-centric Cosmography. The then all-religious heads could not provide the proper reasoning about the geo-centric cosmographic theories, where the eclipses are forming the in cosmos by the examples such as sol lowing of the planets by the Snakes and the biting of the Dogs.  These made the then Astronomers with the curiosity to find the reasoning of the formation of Eclipses in the cosmos based upon the physical science.

The curiosity made them, to avoid the basic principles in the Geo-centrism. They are (i) The order of the planetary positions, ii). The eight kinds of movements of the planets with reference to fixed and the integrated form of the Nakshatras in the Cosmos, iii).The continuously generated energy from the Nakshatras causes the movements of the Planets and to upkeep the fixed position of the earth at the center and with a constant spinning movement. Iv)The shade planets formed over the surface of the earth due to the penetrated rays of the nakshatras through the planets Saturn, Mars, and Jupiter, which causes the occurrence of the eclipses in the Cosmos.

By considering the sidereal periods of the planets to complete one round along and parallel to the fixed Nakshatras of the planets in their positions, they invented the Helios’s system of cosmography, which had the criticisms by the then scholar Ebenezer Burgess. It revealed, it is quite unfortunate to the then astronomers as they have no opportunity to have the details of the fixed and the integrated form of the fixed Nakshatras which forms the cosmos around the Earth. Which lead them to think otherwise even without briefing about the critical movements of the twin planets Earth and the Moon, which have their movement along the elliptical orbit around the Sun

.

In fact, it is not the aim to find the flaws in the system. But to high-light the neglected or a dead system found to be with in the laws of science , by evolving the position of the fixed and the integrated form of the Nakshtra groups, which forms the Cosmos  by using, The Surya siddhantha and the Indian Almanac.  In modern times, it is understood that most of the Scholars are behind mere in faiths by considering the mere distance of the locations of the Nakshatras groups from the earth and not ready to accept that the Nakshatras energy causes the movements of the planets in the cosmos on scientific grounds!

 

                    It found in India that the Science based Ancient Indians Geo-centric Cosmography transformed into religious base and observed by the Indians in their all lifestyles! In India, an  auspicious  or  inauspicious events, they start their events, by narrating the cosmic details like, the name of the current Kalpa, Manvantara,Yuga,Geographical location, the name of the year among the 60 cycle of years, the name of the Month, the name of the Paksha, the name of the week day, the Nakshtra group, through which the moon transits, the names of their ancestors and their relation-ship to  the particular individual, his name and the Nakshatra group when he took birth.. But, some of the Indians too have no belief over the practice of the Ancient Indians’ geocentric cosmic theories as if they could not compared them with the existing Helios’s system of Astronomy in which all the planetary positions had changed.

 

                    In India, all the Astronomical events are practiced in the form of rituals in the daily life. .Special events, such as the formations of eclipses in the cosmos, the Full and New moon periods, the transit period of the Sun from one constellation to the other, and the transit  period of the planets from one constellation to the other constellation. In all above events, in general , the cosmic energy  which acts around the earth causes the desired and undesired  actions over the men and matter on the earth, to set-right them  by the Dos and  Don’ts.  To keep the Do’s and Don’ts by the illiterates they provided the examples such as the snake sallow the planets at the time of eclipses and the certain thing should not carried out.

 

                   In the last few centuries, the geo-centrist failed to explain to the then enquirers, in scientific ways about the occurrence of the eclipses, the retrograde motions of the planets and the opposite movement of the shade planets Rahu and Kethu in the cosmos, as they forgot the Fixed and the integrated form of the Nakshatras groups in the cosmos.

              Now it understood with the evaluation of the Fixed and the integrated form of the 27 nakshatras groups with reference to the Earth’s equator, which forms the Oneness Universe. The energies released by the nakshatras group within the Cosmic-shell, causes the movements of the planets in the Cosmos and stationery position of the Earth with a constant spinning movement in the Cosmos. I request the Scholars and the Astronomers to review the same, if it done without any bias, which will do the betterment of the Men and matter on the Earth.

 

Bibliography:

1. Surya Siddhhantha –A textbook of Hindu Astronomy-Burgess Ebenezer

2. Critical study of ancient Hindu Astronomy-Somayaj D.A

3. Eclipse cult in the Vedas, Bible, and Koran-A supplement to drpsa-Sahastry.

4. Rudimentary Astronomy-Main (Robert)

5. Study of Solar System-Chamers George F)

6. Lessons in Astronomy including Uranography-Young (Charles A)

7. Astronomy has the earth movements Detailed Study-(Subramanya Sastri V)

8. Elements of Descriptive Astronomy-Tancock

9 Indian Ephemeris and Vakya panchangas.

10. Tantra Vidya based on Archaic Astronomy and Tantric Yoga Translation from original German-          Bedekar (Hize Oscar Marcel)

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                                    THANK YOU

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Notes

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Glossary For astronimical terms


1. Jyothisha – Study of the planets with reference to the fixed stellar

2. Hollow egg – Representing the Cosmos Excluding the White and yellow part of the egg

3. Asterims – Representing the group of stellars

4. Cakalya – Sambita – An Astrological Treatise

5. Stellar Constellations – Stellar representing a group of stars and the constellation represents combinations of more than one stellar

6. Cosmograph- The graph representing the positions of the differnet types of 27 stellar groips of stellar with reference to the earth and the order of

the planets positioned between the stellar and the Earth, which is positioned at eh center of the sstellar covered covered cosmos.

7. Surya Siddhantha – An astronimical treatise

8. Nazhigais – Time calculation

9. Shell layers – Egg Shaped Cosmos four different layers at north and south zones of the cosmos with reference to the cosmic equator (ie) Extended

portion of the earth equator

10. Yojana – It is a linear astronomical measurement of the planets with reference to the fixed and the integrated form of the stellar

11. Prana or Maha Prana – Its an energy of a particular planet and the Maha prana isthe combined energy of the planets and the fixed stellars

12. Manvanthras – Its an astronimical time factor

13. Kalpa – Its an astronimical time factor

14. Arohana – Its an acending order of the stellars and movement of the planets in the forward direction with reference to the fixed stellars

15. Avarohana- Its the desending order of the stellars and movement of the planets in the forward direction with reference to the fixed stella

16. Dasa – Bukhthies – Its an astrological calculations of the movements of the planets and the duration or period

17. Astroids -its an object other than planets and stellar in the cosmos

18. Uranography – Subject deals with the sea voyage with referece to the location of the stellars in the cosmos

19. Hemisphere – The egg shaped cosmos spehere divided into Northen and southern hemisphere with reference to the fixed stellars

20. Oscillate – Movement of the particular planet in a particular strellar through in forward and backward direction Movement

21. Western System on Cosmograph – Derived based on the sun centered (Helios) cosmic theories

22. Indian System on Cosmograph- Derived based on the Geo centric cosmic Principles

23. Kalapurush – astrological representation towards the position of the fixed stellars in the cosmos with reference to the earth at the center

24. Vichara – Enqiry

25.Swasa – Breathing (inhale and exhale)

26.Skandharaimaham – Astronomical treatise

29.Kuligan or Manthi – These are the shadow planets

30.Arya battiyam – Its an astronomical & astrological treatise

31.Rajju – its an astrological term

32.Jyesta – One of the Stellar Group

33.Vakra- Retrograde movement of the planet

34.Anu – Vakra – less Retrograde movement of the planet

35.Kutila – Its one of movement of the planet

36.Manda and Mandatara – Its one of movement of the planet

37.Sama and Cigra- Its one of movement of the planet

38.Omghara- An asumption based upon the fixed stellars in the cosmos

A COMPREHENSIVE STUDY ON THE COSMOGRAPHS.


Generally, the Graphs are used to see the results of any research which has a bulk pages of theories at a glance. The COSMOGRAPH is also a graph showing the positions of the NAKSHTRAS (or)STELLAR GROUPS, the positions of the PLANETS and their MOVEMENT IN THEIR PATH-WAY IN THE COSMOS.

Now, there are available number of Cosmographs but the two of them are considered as important than the others because of they have been arrived from the GEO-CENTRIC and the Sun based HELIOS CENTRIC COSMIC PRINCIPLES.

It is found that the two systems are in lack of providing detailed informations about the positions of the NAKSHTRAS GROUPS (or) STELLAR positions in the cosmos with reference to the Earth Or the Sun as per their principles respectively.

During the last few centuries back the Geo-centric cosmic system of cosmological theories had been neglected on the basis that the principles had been derived as they have no scientific approach and have been raised on myths. But the the Geo-centrist who practiced the Geo-geocentric system were also in vague knowledge and could not provided the proper explanations for their principles about the movement of the planets based upon the Fixed Nakshtras (or) Stellar positions in the cosmos and the 8 kinds of motions of the planets in the cosmos. Further, they were not able to explain the formations of eclipses due to the interference of the shade planets casts in the cosmos through the planets like Saturn, Jupiter, and Mars by the penetrated rays of the Nakshtras(stellar) in the cosmos and the FIXED AND THE INTEGRATED FORM OF THE 27 NAKSHTRA GROUPS (stellar) with reference to the Earth in the cosmos.

This made the other Astronomers of the World like Galileo to think otherwise and rejected the Geo-centrist claims on the formations of the eclipses in the cosmos due to the interference of the shade planets and the 8 kinds of motions of the Planets in the Cosmos especially the RETROGRADE MOTIONS OF THE PLANETS WITH REFERENCE TO THE MOVEMENTS OF THE PLANETS ON THE BASIS OF THE NAKSHATRAS AS THE FIXED AND THE INTEGRATED FORM OF THE 27 GROUPS WITH REFERENCE TO THE EARTH WHICH HAD NOT BEEN PROVIDED and had a conclusion that the geo-centralism which would have been arrived only on myths.

Hence, it is hoped that the then Astronomers like Aristotle, Galileo, Copernicus,Kant and Kepler derived the Sun centered Helios system of cosmic theories, assuming the Sun at the center and all the planets have their movements around the Sun in an elliptical orbits by ignoring the positions of the Nakshtras(Stellar) in the Cosmos.

The entry of the Europeans, in India by the Christian missionaries during 16th century brought many inquiries over the crystal clear application of an indigenous knowledge system. As skeptical they were making some efforts to understand the local tradition after a good experience resulted to go for the translation of the Indian Texts.Such an attempt of translation by Ebenezer Burgess falls on the Indian Astronomical Treatise Surya Siddhantha.

Ebenezer Burgess had left a numerous notes in his translation of the Surya siddhantha in which he wrote , ” The modern investigators of the same subject, as Johnes and Cole brooke, also complain of the impossibility of obtaining form the native Astronomers of India satisfactory identifications of the aster-isms and junction of stars. The translator, in like manner, spent much time and effort in the attempt to derive such information from his native assistant, but was able to arrive at no results which could constitute, any valuable addition to those Cole-brooke. It is evident that for centuries past, as at present, the native tradition has been of no decisive authority as regards the position and composition of the groups of stars constitutive the asterisms; there must be determined upon the evidence of more ancient data down the astronomical treatises. Much yet remains to be done, before the History and use of the system of asterisms, as a part of the ancient Hindu Astronomy and Astrology shall be fully understood. There is in existence an abundant literature, ancient and modern , upon the subject, which will doubtless at sometimes provoke laborious investigation, and repay it with interesting results. We have already allotted to the Nakshtras more space than to some may seen advisable; our excuse must be the interest of the History of the system, as part of the ancient history of the rise and spread of Astronomical Science; the importance attaching to the research of M.Biot, the inadequate hither to paid them, and the recent renewal of their discussion in the Journals des savants; and finally and especially, the fact that in and with the asterisms is bound up the whole history of Hindu astronomy, prior to its transformation under the overpowering influence of Western Science”.

The above notes of the translator Ebenezer Burgess inspired me much and I went in search of all the informations about the Nakshtras, the HINDU ASTRONOMICAL PRINCIPALS. the Indian Calendar system, through the studies of the Indian Astronomical Text the Surya siddhantha,the Almanac of the Indians which are designed for a cycle of 60 years from time-to-time, the formations of eclipses in the Cosmos at the intervals of 6 months duration, the astrological theories related to the Astronomical facts, and have noticed the color variations appeared in the eclipsed planet at the time of the eclipse occurred in the cosmos from time to time and the theories related to the Helios system of astronomical theories from which I have evolved the fixed and the integrated form of the 27 Nakshtras(stellar groups) with reference to the Indian theories of Cosmology. It is found that the Surya siddhantha provide valuable informations about the cosmos and the detailed measurements about the circumferences of the integrated form of the Nakshtras around the cosmos, the detailed path-ways of the planets in the Cosmos with reference to the Fixed stellar, the order of the planets in the cosmic sphere which are made out of the integrated form of the Nakshatra groups, and explains the shape of the Cosmos. The Indian Almanac provides the detailed informations about the formations of the 27 Nakshtras in Ascending and descending order with reference to the Earths Equator and its pole line. The Indian calender system explains the movement of the Sun with reference to the Fixed Nakshtras in the Northern and in the Southern heme-sphere of the Cosmos with reference to the Earth which is positioned at the center of the Cosmos.

In the earlier system of the Indian cosmology which have derived on the geo-centric basis the formations of the Fixed stars in the Cosmos with reference to the Earth with the available theories it may not possible for the then Indians to evolve the Cosmograph and the theories based on the 8 kinds of movements of the planets with reference to the Fixed and the integrated form of the 27 stars in the cosmos and assumed that the planets are having the movement in the Cosmos in a regular circular orbits and further it is visualized that the then other astronomers of the World used the same in which they could not prove the formations of eclipses and the formations of the shades due to the penetrated rays of the stars behind the moving planets such as Saturn,Jupiter and Mars and their anti-clock movements in the Space which made the then other Astronomers to think they were derived on mere myths and not on Scientific values.

During the critical studies of the Two-systems it is found that in both system the integrated form of the stars have not been taken into account. While taking into account the Fixed form of the 27 Nakshtras which forms the Cosmos, it is found that the Geo-centric system is also arrived on the Scientific values.

For more pictures and details of the Cosmograph kindly log on http://sites.googlesite/site/geocentriccosmos (or) http://www.swamycosmology.wordpress.com

The main aim of the post is not mere criticizing the other principle or to defame or to have a blind support over the neglected one and only to analyse the facts on the scientific value for the general welfare of all the Human benefits on the planet Earth!

I request the readers to lodge their free minded opinion and suggestions and arguments if any to the author of this post.

Tools ‹ IndianCosmology — WordPress


Tools ‹ IndianCosmology — WordPress.

A CRITICAL STUDY ON THE RELIABILITY OF THE BASIC PRINCIPLES OF THE HELIOS AND THE GEO-CENTRIC COSMIC THEORIES.


INTRODUCTION: I wish to present my critical Analysis on the reliability about the basic principles of the Present Helio’s and the Ancient Indians’ Oneness Universe and the Geo-centric cosmic theories based within the natural laws of Physics. I wish to submit that I am not favor of any particular theory of cosmology but my original intention is to emphasis which is very much reliable according to the science or real knowledge.
HELIOS’ SYSTEM OF COSMOLOGICAL THEORIES :Since for the last two centuries that everybody in the world may know the basic principles and the assumptions were made on the basis of the scientific analysis and accepted as a real and set aside the Geo-centric cosmic theories as they were derived upon the religious and superstitious imaginations and not on the Scientific facts.
MOVEMENTS OF THE PLANETS IN THE HELIOS’ SYSTEM: Now, It is noticed that the movements of the planets in an elliptical orbit around the Sun in their positions is also an assumption. But they have used all the sidereal periods of the planets movements along and parallel to the fixed and the integrated form of the 27 stellar groups which forms the egg-shaped cosmos. It is noticed that not only the westerners but also the Indians who practiced the stellar based movements of the planets during 476 C.E had also interpreted the movements of the planets around the Sun because they too had forgotten the fixed and the integrated form of the stellar groups in the cosmos and there by had no idea about the movements of the planets based upon the stellar groups in the cosmos revealed by their Ancestors.
DO THE PLANETS CAN MOVE IN AN ELLIPTICAL ORBIT?
In the Helios’ system it is assumed that an elliptical force line orbit has been generated from the Sun which makes the other planets to have their movements in their positions around the Sun.
Now let us consider the movement of the Earth and the Moon as its sub-planet around the Sun.
MOVEMENT OF THE EARTH AND THE MOON AROUND THE SUN:
When comparing the movements of the other planets around the Sun the movements of the Earth and the Moon is found to be a little complicated. Initially , The Earth has to move along the elliptical orbit generated by the Sun and it has to self rotates itself and the Moon has to rotate around the earth and along the elliptical pathway around the Sun.
FORMATION ELLIPTICAL PATHWAY FORCE-LINE: I hope that an elliptical force- line can be formed only if it has major-axis and minor- axis in which the force on the respective axises must varied in their quantitative. If it is so, let us consider the movement of the Earth which has its uniform self- rotation throughout.This self-rotated Earth has a movement along the elliptical path-way around the Sun and it is taken as 365.25 days to complete on round around the Sun. The Earth has to cross the major and minor axis portions of the elliptical path-way around the sun 4 times in a year and at an interval of 3 months. Hence ,when the Earth passes through the Major-axis portions the self-rotating speed of the earth may have a set-back from its normal speed of self-rotation which may cause the difference in the gravitational force of the earth may be felt on the surface of the Earth at a frequent intervals of three months. But the reality shows that no such difference in the gravitational force of the earth has been felt.From this study we can asses that the has no chance to move parallel to an elliptical orbit around the Sun.
WHAT MADE TO ASSUME THAT THE PLANETS ARE MOVING AROUND THE SUN?
During 476 C.E an India Astronomer had stated that the planets are revolving around the Sun and the formation of Lunar eclipse is due to the interference of the Earths’ Shade . It is not sure whether he paid attention to note the color variations in the Eclipsed planet at the time of Eclipse and further it is noticed during his time the fixed and the integrated form of the 27 Nakshtras groups which forms the Egg-shaped cosmos might not be available.
During 1755 C.E. when the Westerners made a study about the cosmic principles, in the absence of the fixed and the integrated form of the Nakshtras groups which makes the cosmos,
they appreciated the Hindu Astronomical data’s such as the sidereal periods of the planets ie., the time taken by a planet to complete one round along and parallel to the fixed and the integrated form of the Nakshtras’ groups and the occurrence of eclipses at frequent intervals. But they neglected and did not accept the Hindus 8 kinds of motions of the planets as they were revealed only by superstitious. Now, anybody can visualize the option for an elliptical orbit is nothing but to prove the formation of the Eclipses. If a uniform circular orbit of rotation Earth and Moon around the Sun is to be considered then there will be no possibility of forming the nodes at different positions as in the elliptical orbits and there may be no chance of formations of eclipses at an intervals of 6 months and at the same time it has the possibility of formation of eclipses at a frequent intervals of 15 days when the Sun , Moon and the Earth happens to be at a straight-line in the cosmos.
Ebenezer Burgess, in his translation of Surya Siddhanta wrote,” Much yet remains to be done, before the History and use of the system of aster ism, as a part of the ancient Hindu Astronomy shall be fully understood. There is in existence an abundant literature, ancient and modern, upon the subject, which will doubtless at sometimes provoke laborious investigation, and repay it with interesting results. We have already allotted to the Nakshtras more space than to some may see advisable; our excuse must be the interest of the History of the system, as part of the ancient history of the rise and spread of Astronomical Science; the importance attaching to the researches of M.Biot, the inadequate attention hither to paid them, and the recent renewal of their discussion in the journals des savants; and finally and especially, the fact in and with the aster ism is bound up the whole history of Hindu Astronomy; prior to its transformation under overpowering influence of western science.”
THE POSITIONS OF THE PLANETS IN THE COSMOS:
The Ancient Indians had derived the positions of the Planets in the Nakshtra Groups covered cosmos next below the Nakshtra groups the following planets are positioned 1.Saturn,2.Jupiter,3.Mars,4.Sun.5.Venus,6.Mercury,7.Moon and at the center of the cosmos the Earth is positioned . According to their position the Saturn takes 30 years to complete one round along and parallel to the Fixed and the integrated path-way of the Nakshtra Groups and the Jupiter takes 12 years; the Mars takes 18 months; the Sun takes one year;the Venus takes 225 days; the Mercury takes 88 days; and the Moon takes 27.33 days.
In the Helios’ system of Astronomy it is found that they had adopted the movements of the planets based upon the Nakshtra groups integrated form path-way which is found to be either in a regular circular nor in a regular elliptical orbit but in a petal line format.Kindly refer my diagram at http://www.swamycosmology.wordpress.com
They had assumed the Sun at the Center and had plotted the positions planets around the Sun in as assumed elliptical orbits to prove the formation of eclipses. Now, it can easily be ascertained if they strictly followed the duration of the planets to complete one round around the sun, the Moon has to be positioned next to the Sun’s position If it is done like that then there will be no possibility for the formations of eclipses. Hence they had transplanted the Moon as a sub-planet to the Earth and treated the The Moon as a sub-planet to the Earth and both revolve around the Sun and assumed to have one year to complete one year and the Moon revolves around the Earth and had assumed it takes 27.33 days to complete one round around the Earth.
But the Ancient Indians had derived the Nakshtra based movements of the planets and completes one round along and parallel to the petal-line path-way and take different periods according to their positions in the Cosmos. Further It is revealed that all the planets have a same speed of motions.

The Ancient Indians’ CALENDER SYSTEM based upon their Geo-Centric Cosmological Theories.


Introduction: The Ancient Indians were well aware of that the normal life of the living-beings on the Earth could not be followed smoothly without any planning.Hence they invented their calendar system based upon their Geo-centric and the Oneness Universe Cosmological Theories.They were well-known about the impacts of the 27 stellar,the 7 planets,the 2 shadow planets over the Earth which is positioned at the center of the integrated form of the 27 stellar-groups around the Earth which makes the Egg-shaped Oneness cosmos. They invented that the Stellar energy is the basic source for the movements of all the planets which have their movements along and parallel to the integrated and the fixed formed form of the stellar energy-line which is in the form of PETAL-LINE PATH which is not either in a regular Circular or in a regular elliptical orbits. They considered the Sun and the Moon and the fixed positions of the stellar are the basic factors including the positions of the other planets which are positioned between the Earth and the Stellar in the Cosmos for arriving their detailed Calender system.

HORA-SYSTEM: I hope the term “HORA” MEANS the duration of time of a particular planet’s influence over the Earth. Accordingly, the Ancient Indians identified the duration of time between the two consecutive Sun raises as 60 NAZHIES AND later which is known as 24 HOURS.

ORDER OF THE WEEK-DAYS; The Ancient Indians noticed the routine of Sun raises in the cosmos they found-out a way to identify the each 60 NAHIES or 24 Hour time-limit by using the order of the planets which are positioned in the Geo-centered cosmos and their influence over the Earth.From their Slogas we can identify the order of the planets from the stellar are as follows:1.Saturn, 2.Jupiter, 3.Mars, 4.Sun, 5.Venus, 6.Mercury, and 7.Moon. They distributed an even time-bound influence for each planet in the above order at the rate of 2-1/2 Nahies or ONE HOUR BETWEEN THE TWO CONSECUTIVE SUN RAISES. NOW WE CAN SEE,BETWEEN THE TWO CONSECUTIVE SUN RAISES THERE ARE THREE COMPLETE ROTATIONS WHICH ENDS AT 21 HOUR AND THE REMAINING 3 HOURS WILL BE OF SATURN,JUPITER AND MARS AND AT THE TH HOUR WHEN THE NEXT SUN RAISE TAKES PLACE WHEN THE SUN WILL BE THE FIRST PLANET TO THE SECOND PHASE OF SUN RAISE WHICH IS IDENTIFIED AS SUN-DAY AND THE FORMER ONE IS IDENTIFIED AS SATURDAY AND USING THE ABOVE ROTATION THEY HAD ARRIVED THE ORDER OF THE WEEK-DAYS AS SATURDAY, SUN-DAY, MON-DAY, TUES-DAY, WEDNESDAY-DAY, THURS-DAY, AND FRIDAY.

FIVE-ELEMENTS FACTOR:The Ancient Indians gave more importance to the Five-Elements Factors in designing their Calender system.The basic and primary five elements are 1.The Air, 2.The Heat, 3.The Water, 4.The Earth Energy ie., the Gravitational force, 5.The energy received from the Stellar and the Planets in the cosmos around the Earth.
1.DAY: A Day is defined as the time spread over between the two-consecutive Sun-raises and identified with the order of the planets which are positioned between the Integrated form of stellar and the Earth which is positioned at the center of the Cosmos which made out of the integrated form of 27- stellar-groups.Initially the first Sun raises is identified as Saturday as the Saturn occupies the first position from the Stellar and the subsequent sun-raises are identified as Sunday, Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, and Friday from the order of the planets Saturn,Jupiter.Mars, Sun, Venus, Mercury, and Moon between the Stellar and the Earth.

NAKSHTRA OR STELLAR GROUP: The influence of a particular Stellar Group in the Cosmos is identified on a particular day by using the movement of the Moon through a particular Stellar group which are positioned in the cosmos in ascending and descending order with reference to the Earth’s Equator or otherwise known as Cosmic-Equator

THITHI OR FULL /NEW-MOON: The Moon’s movement has been compared with the position of the Sun’s movement in the Cosmos with reference to the Fixed Stellar constellation in the cosmos.For Example, In the month of April the Sun is used to be in transit along and parallel to the Stellar groups namely Aswin, Bharani, and krithika’s first quarter portion. During that period when the moon takes it transit through the above stellar groups in its position , the Sun and moon happens to be at the same stellar groups in their positions in the cosmos which represents the New-moon or otherwise known as Amavasai. As the Moon which has a lesser circumference petal-line orbit than the Sun, has to move along the stellar force-line and reach the just opposite to the stellar groups where the Sun has a lesser transit when comparing the transit of moon and have its transit within the stellar groups and the moon and the sun happens to at a straight- line and the Full moon is occurring which is known as Poornima. It is quite interesting to note that the phases of the moon takes place due to the movement of the moon along and parallel to the CURVED PLACEMENT OF THE STELLAR GROUPS IN THE COSMOS AND THEIR FORCE-LINE WITH REFERENCE TO THE COSMIC EQUATOR.

YOGAS AND KARNAS; The Ancient Indians made their interpretations of the Yogas and karnas based upon the positions of the moon , Sun , the Stellar, and the other planets influences over the earth on a particular day.

THE CALENDER; The Ancient Indians derived their Calender system using the Nazhigai as the basic unit of time measurement.The following table will provide the details of the Ancient Indians Calender system.

An eye-lid movement = time taken to produce a sound
with the thumb and the middle
fingure. ( Nodi)
2 Nodies = 1 Mathirai
2 Mathiraies = 1 Guru
6 Gurus = 1 Swasa or Prana
6 Pranas = 1Kshna or palam
12 Kshnas = 1 Vinazhi
60 Vinazhies = 1 Nazhi
2.5 Nazhies = 1 Hour
60 Nazhies = 24 Hours or 1 Day
30 Days = 1 Month ( The moon completes
one round along and parellel
to the fixed stellar-
constellations in the cosmos.)
12 Months 1Year(The Sun completes a one round along and parallel to
the fixed stellar constellations
in the cosmos.)

SIXTY YEARS OF CYCLE;
The Ancient Indians further expands the year system to have greater analysis for the future forecast using the five-elements factor they have sub-divided the sixty-years in five major heads such as 1.ETHAVATHSARA, 2.EDAVATHSARA, 3.SAMVATHSARA, 4.PARIVATHSARA, and 5.ANUVATHSARA . USING THE VATHSARAS THEY USED TO FORECAST THE CLIMATIC CHANGES AND OTHER IMPORTANT HAPPENINGS THAT WOULD HAPPEN ON THE EARTH DUE TO THE MOVEMENTS OF THE PLANETS IN THE COSMOS.

AYANAS; Ayanas means movements. The Ancient Indians derived the based upon the movement of the Sun in the Cosmos.They identified the movement of the Sun through and parallel to the Fixed Stellar constellations which are positioned the Northern heme-sphere of the Cosmos and the movement of the Sun through the stellar constellations in the Southern heme-sphere of the Cosmos are known as UTHIRAAYANA AND DASHINA-AYANA respectively. Normally when the Sun enters through the stellar constellations in the Northern-heme-sphere during the middle of January and transit in the Northern portion of the Cosmos until the middle of July of every year and from the middle of July and to the middle of January of every year the Sun happens to be at the Southern heme-sphere of the Cosmos.

The Ancient Indians elaborated further their calendar system through which we can come into a conclusion the time of formation of the Oneness universe surrounded by the integrated form of the 27 stellar constellations. the elaborated table is as follows :

12 Months = 1 Deva Day
360 Deva Days = 1 Deva Year
1200 Deva Years = 1 Chathur Youga*
71 Chathur Yougas = 1 Manvanthra**
14 Manvanthras = 1 Kalpa***

* Chathur means four, the four Yougas are 1.KIRUTHA YOUGA, 2.THREYDHA YOUGA, 3.DHUVAPARA YOUGA, AND 4.KALI YOUGA.
The various time-limits for the four Yougas are as follows:

Names of the Yougas In terms of In terms of
Deva-Days one round of the Sun
along and parallel to the
integrated form of 27
stellar constellations.

1.KIRUTHA YOUGA 4800 17,28,000
2.THREYTHA YOUGA 3600 12,96,000
3.DHUVAPARA YOUGA 2400 8,64,000
4.KALI YOUGA 1200 4,32,000

NAMES OF THE FOURTEEN MANVANTHARAS;

1.SWAYAMBU MANVANTHARA
2.SWAROSHTA MANVANTHARA
3.UTHAMA MANVANTHARA
4.DHAMASA MANVANTHARA
5.RAIVATHI MANVANTHARA
6.SAKSHEESHA MANVANTHARA
7.VAIVASUTHA MANVANTHARA
8.SOORYASAVARNI MANVANTHARA
9.DAKSHINASARVANI MANVANTHARA
10.BHARAMASAVARNI MANVANTHARA
11.DHAMASAVARNI MANVANTHARA
12.RUDHARASAVARNI MANVANTHARA
13.DEVASAVARNI MANVANTHARA
14.INDRASAVARNI MANVANTHARA

KALPAS; There are seven kalpas which are known as:

1.SUVEDHAVARAHA KALPA
2.KOORMA KALPA
3.PARTHIVA KALPA
4.SAVITHRI KALPA
5.PRALAYA KALPA
6.VARAHA KALPA
7.BRHAMA KALPA

ARITHMETIC CALCULATIONS;

The Ancient Indians used 36 digital s to have an elaborate astronomical calculations and they had named them to their placement. They are as follows:1.First digit is as one, 2.second digit as Dasamam, 3. Third digit as Sadam (hundred), 6th digit as one lack,7th as ten -lack,8th as one-crore, 9th as dasa-kodi,10th as sadha-kodi, 11th as Arbhudham, 12th as Nirbhutham, 13th as Garvam, 14th as Maha-garvam, 15th as Padmam, 16th as Maha-padmam, 17 as Kshoroni, 18th as Maha-kshoroni,19th as Sangam, 20th as Maha-sangam, 21st as Kshathi, 22nd as Maha-kshathi, 23rd as Shodam, 24th as Maha-shodam, 25th as Nidhi, 26th as Maha-nidhi, 27th as Bharatham, 28th as Parthin, 29th as Anandham, 30th as Saharam, 31st as Aryam, 35th as Bhoori, and the 36th digit is known as Maha-bhoori .

CONCLUTION;
The detailed formation of the Indian Calender System is standing as a proof for their Oneness Geo-centric cosmic theories.

2

Formation of Eclipses and the Oneness Universe


The Ancient Indians invented the Oneness Universe. The Oneness Universe is made out of the Fixed and the integrated form of the 27 Stellar constellations which are spread around the Earth with reference to its equator which is also known as Cosmic Equator in ascending and descending order and forms the Oneness Egg-shaped Universe.They found out that the other Planets such as Saturn, Jupiter, Mars, Sun, Venus, Mercury and the Moon are positioned the space in between the Stellar constellations and the Earth and where the Earth is positioned at the center of the cosmos. They calculated the movements of the Planets with reference to the Fixed Stellar constellation force line which also known as the sidereal periods of the planets. It is noticed that the Stella rs force line in the cosmos either in a regular circle or in a regular elliptical but in a petal-line orbits. This petal-line formation causes the zig-zag movements of the planets with reference to the Earth.
Formations of Eclipses: The Ancient Indians derived that the Eclipses are formed in the Cosmos at an interval of six months by the interventions of the color shades which is also otherwise known as Rahu and Kethu before the Sun and Moon. If the Solar Eclipse forms in the Eastern heme-sphere of the cosmos then the following Lunar Eclipse will be formed in the Western heme-sphere of the cosmos.
Conditions for the full and partial Eclipses:

The line of collimation from the observer and to the position of Rahu or Kethu and the Sun or Moon falls in a Straight Line then the Eclipse formed will be a total-one and if there any deviation in angle of vision will cause for a partial or no eclipse.
FORMATION OF SHADE-PLANETS RAHU AND KETHU:
The shade Planets Rahu and Kethu are formed in the cosmos between the Moon and the Earth due to the penetrated Stellar rays through the Saturn and Mars respectively and have their movements in the opposite direction against their parent planets due to their petal-line movements in the Cosmos. Further the Ancient Indians clarified when the Sun or Moon is obscured by black colored rahu then the eclipsed planet will be seen BLACK IN COLOR. IF IT IS BY KETHU THEN THE PLANETS WILL BE SEEN RED IN COLOR
This can be clarified even to-day when the eclipses are formed in the Cosmos.

A Partial Solar Eclipse will be formed on 22.07.2009 between 5.26 and 7.12 A.M as per Indian Standard Time.
this will be occurring in the Eastern heme-sphere of the cosmos due to Kethu and hence the Sun will be seen RED in Color.

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